Gazetteer of Endor
Copyright Gabriele Quaglia and Eric Dubourg ©2003
Editor's note: This remains very much a work-in-progress, and is subject to change
before it is completed. This gazetteer includes new lands as well as revisions of the previous gazetteer written
by Pete Fenlon. This includes notes from the Illuin Bay, Ormal Bay, Womaw and Lochan projects being worked on by
Cory Rushton, Gabriele Quaglia, Stéphane Hoerle, and many others.
This file provides basic information about the various regions of the continent of Endor. The geography is based on
the alternative map of Endor drawn by T. Morwinsky, as seen in Other Hands issue 29/30 (July 2000). There is now more
information about some of these lands, such as the Chyan Empire and Mûmakan. This is the first fruit of a massive task
being undertaken to continue work on expanding the East and South of Middle-earth for role-playing purposes. You can learn
more about this project by visiting the Fan-Modules Yahoo Group or by joining the mailing list directly by sending a blank
email to firstname.lastname@example.org.
A B C D
E F G H
I J K L
M N O P
Q R S T
U V W X
Acaana is a high, grassy plateau situated along the southeastern flank of the Ered Harmal (aka the Ered Ormal). The Acaana Rush, a broad and swift river, forms its southern boundary. The Gaath Hills form the region's northern and eastern border. The Aca Gap is the only easy route between Acaana and Anarikê to the south. The Aca Gap is home to many bands of thieves and robbers. To the west is the Rocky Pass, which is much more dangerous due to the Orcs that infest it. The Rocky Pass leads directly to Chy, and because of its dangers, most Chyans and Anarikanî use the coastal road that leads through Anarikê. Another danger in the Rocky Pass is the city of Akalaî-Zaj (The Fallen City of the Sakal an-Khâr people), which is populated by fierce warriors - probably the descendants of the Aca tribes and the Sakal an-Khanîm who were forced from Anarikê. These warriors keep in check the Orcs of the Rocky Pass, and on some occasions launch raids on the Aca lands, and more rarely in Anarikê.
The Aca folk, fierce and independent Ibavin-speaking clansmen, herd their goats and horses throughout Acaana. Most Aca live a semi-nomadic life, although about a third live in the villages along the Acaana Rush on a year-round basis. They often make raids into Anarikê and into the Chyan lands through the Aca Gap. Acaana is usually a subject state of Anarikê.
Aeareryn (S. "Sea of Trees"), is a huge taiga woodland that stretches along the coast of the Sea of Silluin. Mostly uninhabited, it is sometimes roamed by Avarin herders and wanderers.
Situated between the Orocarni (Q. "Red Mountains") and the Romenëar, Aegan is a large and heavily forested coastal region renowned for its myriad tree species. Its two grand temperate forests provide a home to hundreds of different kinds of maple, oak, chestnut, cherry, hickory, elm, pine, and spruce. Besides yielding countless medicinal resources, lumber and pitch for boats, and various oils and syrups, the rich woodlands shelter numerous beasts. Large cats and apes dominate the local chain of life. The Aegaw reside throughout Aegan. A Womarin-speaking people, they constitute the southern branch of the same Hildo family that produced the Womaw. The four Aegaw tribes - the Uonurk (central), Ornurk (west), Dawurk (east), and Arxurk (south) - share a largely common culture with their brethren across the Bay of Swirling Waters. Only geography sunders their union. A watery gulf and rugged mountains help restrict free movement and, because Aegan's two rivers (the Orosîr and Dawahîr) run southward, the Aegaw focus much of their commercial attention toward the south. Like the Womaw, the Aegaw enjoy a strong, somewhat rigid political tradition. The four tribes each elect their leader, a "Hion", in an annual midwinter's moot. Blood plays a major part in these elections, and it is not unusual for one family to oversee a tribe for a number of centuries. Every four years, the election is especially important, for afterwards the four Hioni join to select another individual as Hionvol. The Hionvol serves as the Over-chief of all the Aegaw. He resides at Uon, where he maintains the Four Shrines, conducts foreign policy, and wages war. Aegaw symbolism is rich and varied. Nature and family provide many of the themes. All four Aegaw tribes carry similar banners, each a two-color design with a stylized tree emblazoned on a contrasting field. The Ornurk's flag involves a dark red pine on a pale lavender background, symbolizing their affiliation with the Orosîr Valley. A green maple on a white field serves as the symbol of the less numerous but powerful Uonurk. The plentiful Dawurk carry a banner that nearly mirrors this design, for it displays a silver oak on a green field. A yellow cherry on a black field denotes the Arxurk. When joined, the Aegaw carry a large flag incorporating all four of the tribal fields (lavender, white, green, and black) and adorned with a black chestnut tree-the symbol of tribal unity.
This rocky coastal plain is struck frequently by blizzards. In the summer, when the icecap retreats, it transforms into a boggy plain roamed by scattered herds of reindeer, and a few bands of Agnica. Very isolated, this land communicates with Urd only through the frozen Firth of Rocks from September to April.
Aigvald is situated along the northeastern flank of the Orocarni (Q. "Red Mountains") and along the southern shore of the Sea of Illuin. It is a very cold, rocky and windswept land. It is inhabited by scattered bands of Aigar - a Mornerin-speaking people.
Aldhad is a low steppe land located around mountains called by the Lynerian scholars the Arc of Fehda. It is located to the east of Dhaht and to the south of Gaathgykarkan and Ibav. Like Dhaht, green grasslands are the main landscape of Fehaj. According to old tales, Folud was a Dilikhran leader who fled the tyranny of some Dilikhran tribes (especially the quarrelsome Mudhriag and Rumyari) in Dhaht with his people to the safety of this land. Fehda chose to be entombed in the highest peak of the Arc, Mount Othul, so that he could keep a watchful eye on his people for eternity. Folud's people consider themselves Lynîr allies and often act as mercenaries in the Lynerian League against the Zurghîr tribes. They are accustomed to jungle survival, as they very often make expeditions into the forests of Maaken in order to collect the various rare herbs and woods of the region.
The southernmost portion of Endor's High East-plain, Alduryaknar lies around three thousand feet above sea level. Its temperate climate and ample rainfall make it a fine pastureland. Here, horses and cattle prosper under the skilled hand of Adek-speaking Alduryakna herders.
Irakh is a chain of relatively well-explored and moderately settled islands. Well known by mariners of the Southern Archipelago, the chain is sometimes known as the "Silver Road" since it is an important way station of the sea-lanes. The chain is composed of twenty-two major and around two hundred minor islands, which extend two thousand miles into the Haragaer. Some of these islands remain uncharted and unexplored. Beautiful and mountainous Amirakh is the largest isle in the Irakh chain. Some of these islands are occupied by a diverse group of Râkhe-speaking traders and fisher-folk, and by the Pái elves. Amirakh is heavily influenced by neighboring Sâre and Vulmaw peoples. Struggles over its outlying island domain make it a frequent target for invasion.
Along the frontier of Harshandatt, the Ammu Baj hills rise, covered by the forest of the same name. The forest is tropical, as opposed to those located at the Ered Harmal foothills, which are coniferous. Located in the hills is the border city of the Chyan Empire, Tenolkachyn, "the Fortress of Vigilance." It holds an impressive fortress that protects the Chyan Empire against invaders coming from Harshandatt. The city is magnificent, with splendid gates, bustling market streets, and impressive temples. Near the city center are the massive Megaliths, erected in honor of the Highest High King of History. There is an old saying here that "when the city falls, so will fall the Chyan Empire." This axiom has been proven true several times in history. The city is not entirely military in nature, however, as plenty of pleasure and entertainment can be found here. Tenolkachyn is one of the main cities of the Empire.
The land of Anarikê can be divided into three major areas - the coastal lands south of Bulchyades, the Ered Harmal, and the eastern lands stretching to Codya, which are heavily forested. The river Kriis, also named Glírithilduin (S. "Gold Shining River") is the clear frontier between the three different regions (for both geographic and historical reasons having to do with the successive migrations and invasions throughout the Second Age).
Olyas Kriis is a semi-arid peninsula located west of the southern reaches of the Ered Harmal. It stretches south from the Endor mainland, about two hundred miles out into the Bay of Ormal. Dry hills dominate its central and southern quarters, while forests lie along its eastern border.
Kythor (El. "River Coast Land") is located between the rivers Kriis and Alturaj (which also represents the frontier with the Vulmaw realm). In contrast to Olyas Kriis, Kythor is a less dry land, with a little more precipitation and more diverse plant life. There are many more fortified cities and villages than in Olyas Kriis, probably for fear of pirates and the Vulmaw.
The capital city of Kadar Abar-narîk (Ad. "Citadel of Iron Eagles" - also called Ost Angthoronion, which is unusual for a Dark Númenírean realm), is situated at the mouth of the River Kriis in a formidable natural harbour with enough space for an entire fleet. But the sea currents near the river end ("the Sea-storm Gulf") are very difficult to navigate, so only expert captains are able to sail here. Wrecks are frequent, so the main commercial routes to this central Anarikê city are by land.
Near the source of the Kriis the mines are very rich, basically gold ores (the most important in the bay), and in a nearby region iron ores as well. The mineral is taken from the mines down the river by rafts driven by bargemen clans who are very reclusive but who are also very friendly with the few Kuorind elves that remain in the coastal temperate rainforests.
Anarikê is one of the various Ârûwanâi realms in the South. They consider themselves a major power of the Bay, but they are not as haughty and arrogant as most of the other regional powers. Their traditional enemy are the Númeníreans of Sakal an-Khâr, while their favored allies are the realms of Bellakar and the Lynerian League. Anarikê is ruled by a king, a hereditary office held by the ruling elite of (now) partially Ârûwanâi stock. This realm was founded by the son of Herundil the Storm King, Lôkhuzôr, and his supporters (both Númenírean and native), and its purpose was to fight against effects of Herundil's brutal reign in the area.
Ciryatanírë (Anbalukkhôr) owes its name to Tar-Ciryatan, for it was originally established in the Second Age (1904) as a Númenírean colony. Ciryamir, the original founder of the domain, was the cousin of Mûrazôr (the future Witch-king) and the father of his successor, Akhôrahil (another future Úlair). Bewitched by his vile son, he committed suicide in S.A. 1918. Akhôrahil ascended the throne on the first day of the next year. He subsequently conquered a vast portion of southern Endor. After accepting a Ring of Power in S.A. 2000, he broadened his hold, only to run afoul of his Númenírean liege (Tar-Ancalimon). Ciryatanírë lies north of the Ered Laranor and east of Tulwang, some 200 miles inland from the southern Belegaer. Ciryatanírë is comprised of three dissimilar lands: Curinshiban with its tropical humid forest, Seznebab as a temperate mountain place, and Zajantak a rather semi arid land. These lands are usually not united.
Curinshiban lies north of the Ered Laranor and south of Tulwang. Zadan an-Adûn ("Tower of Red Sunset" Qu "Marath Carnadúnê", S. "Barad Annûn"); serves as its traditional capital. The other important cities are Kadar an-Khâradun at the mouth of river Balakurush, Arhazûn-Tarîk ("Shining Sea Pillar of the Adûnai"), Alkathônda ("Castle of the Coastal Sea Forest") near the frontier with Khâradun, and Azrulôni (Ad "Haven of the Sea") near Kadar an-Khâradun. Azrulôni is the third most important city of Curinshiban after Kadar an-Khâradun (one of the greatest port cities of all the Southern lands, eclipsed only by Ûrêzâyan in Bellakar and Bozisha-Dâr) and Zadan an-Adûn, home of Anbalukkhôr's navy.
Seznebab is the region on the northern drainage of the Yellow Mountains between Chennacatt, Curinshiban and Zajantak, between the Yellow Mountains and the Kurryan Bay of the Sundering Sea. Seznebab and Curinshiban together formed the Second Age Númenírean colony of Ciryatanore (or Anbalukkhôr). Seznebab is also the core land for the conquests of the Nazgul Akhorahil and the Army of the Southern Dragon. The climate in the temperate highland valleys is comparable to that of Númenor, which easily explains why Númeníreans settled there. All the trade routes are controlled by two fortresses built during Second Age, Adûn-Tarîk ("The Red Tower") and Bâtan-Urîd ("The Mountain Path City").
Zajantak is located on the northern foothills of the Yellow Mountains, and is subtropical with oasis valleys, tropical forests as well as deadly swamps. Zajantak became in the Middle Third Age the garrison land for the Army of the Southern Dragon, and was only part of the realm of Anbalukkhôr during Akhôrahil's rule.
Located south of the eastern branch of the Ered Engrin (S. "Iron Mountains"), Angclax (Ang. "Beyond the Angranit river") is a desolate coastal region. Forlorn rock outcroppings and scree-fields cover most of the area, although spongy, heath-covered plains lend life and color to the southern and western reaches. A handful of Mornerin hunters roam the coasts and river valleys of this land, trying to make a living out of the hardships of the environment and the Urdarin domination. Few of these Angclax clansmen venture into the highlands to the north, where Mountain-Orcs and other monsters reputedly reside.
To the northwest of Angclax (near the springs of the Angranit River) lies Drùhar-shatûr, the capital of the Dwarves of Drùhar's Folk.
A large isle located in southeastern Endor, Arg-Sîmorîg is a blessed domain renowned for its swift streams, clear lakes and well-protected harbors. It is among the prettiest sites in all of Endor. Situated in the shadow of the Orosúlo, it rises out of a triangular gulf called the Yawning Bay. Two hilly peninsulas, Faelaan (to the north) and Ka'ish (to the south), surround the seaward sides of the bay, as if a pair of arms reached eastward from the mountains in order to capture the island and its surrounding waters.
The Argaw rule Arg-Sîmorîg. They are descendants of the Womaw settlers who seized the island from its indigenous Fale inhabitants. These Argawin speaking people remain close to their ancestral kinsmen, and maintain strong trade ties with the Aegaw and Lochaw, who also descended from the Womaw. A very civilized and urbanized society, most Argaw reside in the four cities of northern Arg-Sîmorîg: Zyras (at the northern tip), Sómor (on the east coast), and Tor and Nhaag (north of the large, central lake called the Stoybûr). The only remaining Fale settlements are sprinkled in hills west of the Akaak Wetlands, in the southwestern quarter of the isle.
Steep mountains rise along the western coast of Arg-Sîmorîg. Here, the landscape precludes road building and most travel is seaborne. Although the area accommodates numerous fishing villages, it is devoid of larger settlements.
Southern Arg-Sîmorîg is dominated by a vast marsh, the Akaak Wetlands. Fed by the river Akaak and subterranean runoff from the Stoybûr, it is a sea of swampy grasslands. Few people live in this rich but inhospitable area.
Aside from the Akaak, the Aríak is the only navigable river on the island. It serves as the Stoybûr's only negotiable outlet to the Yawning Bay. Fifty miles long, it connects Sómor, the area's largest city, to Nhaag, the capital. Boats from Sómor, which is situated at the mouth of the Aríak, can easily make their way upstream to the Stoybûr. Nhaag is only a fifteen-mile journey across the deep lake.
The symbol of Arg-Sîmorîg is a diving, black marsh hawk. This stylized bird adorns the flag of the Argaw, a triangular white banner with a blue frame.
Arth is a generally sandy, four hundred and seventy-five mile long island situated in the northeastern part of Endor's Southern Archipelago. A one hundred mile long jungle forest (primarily pines, coconut, palm and cedar) dominates the central portion of the isle, which has an extremely wet but mild climate. The fauna is prolific, represented by lovely and graceful birds, different species of serpents, and insects. Hunting birds and tropical serpents (some of them are considered very rare and only native from Arth) is considered as a sport by the Vulmaw nobility, and these animals are sold at very expensive price in the northern market places of Ormal Bay, like Chajapûn, Abar-Narîk, Caerdhyan or Drej Uriac.
Two port towns-Arsuon in the northwest and Vucuon in the southeast-accommodate nearly all of the island's thirty thousand Vulman-speaking residents. This island was settled by Vulman people in the beginning of the second millenia of Second Age, in an attempt to control the Southern Archipelago. The coast is also strung with a line of scattered villages. The villagers earn a poor living by trading in plantains, dried shrimps, banana, citrus, sugar-cane trees, and the product of the coconut palm (coconut husk ropes, lumber, reddish palm oil and copra cake - dried coconut meat). The oil is sent in jars to the cities of Codya, where it is most appreciated.
Located along the northwestern flank of the Ered Engrin (S. "Iron Mountains"), Avikangsdar is an extremely cold, tundra-covered region. This bleak, almost uninhabited domain is best known for its ferocious winds and bitter winter temperatures.
The Niss River empties into a very large gulf. The coastal lands are extremely fertile, with a hot climate (tempered by sea breezes) and frequent precipitations. Streams are numerous, and water soaks the earth in summer as in winter. The warm climate is convenient to the development of luxurious forests. It is one of the best fishing grounds in all of Endor.
Thousands of fish species reside in these clear and warm waters. The Bay shelters four important anchorages from west to east: Nirshat, Bêlzadan, Abâr-Zadan (at the mouth of the Niss River) and Gimil. One other important city of Balkulôni is built to the south of the Treddas Mountains, and is named Kadar an-Urud.
The Niss valley and the Lynerian League coasts and forests are the most fertile regions of Ormal Bay. The warm climate is convenient to the development of a luxurious flora, mainly composed of palm trees, date palms and numerous types of fruit trees. The hills are green, covered with thick grasses and strewn with a multitude of small multi-colored flowers. Inland the flora becomes more bushy and sparse.
The Barl Syrnac is the western branch of the Iron Mountains, comprising great glaciers and snow capped peaks (the highest peaks reach 5000 meters), raised by Morgoth to protect his fortress of Utumno. These glistening spires protect the more temperate coastal taiga to the east from the harsh winds of Forodwaith. Great evergreen forests cover much of the taiga, especially in the coves and bays of the Sea of Illuin. Traditionally, the Barl Syrnac can be divided into three different regions: Azjan (called by Dyrian and Mornerin "the Land of Evil Spirit"), Ukal Sêj ("the Rivers double Bay") and the forest of Dyr.
Azjan is rather rugged and inhospitable. There are few forest, several secondary chain peaks, coastal sharp cliffs, and taiga plains. This land is usually avoided, except by the fools, as this was there that Morgoth and his evil servants established themselves. According to Dyrian's tales, the evil servants are still there, the most feared being Gostir, a pure white Cold-drake, the ancient "Dread-glance" of Dyrian legend, and perhaps some deadly spirits of cold or fire.
In Ukal Sêj, there are more than ten great rivers that take source from the Barl Syrnac. the most important river is the Lusraig (Lo "Colored Reddish Foam River"), the longest in all Ukal-Sêj, named for the reddish colour of the waters, that takes its source near the secret cave of Gostir. A local tale tells that one must not cross the Lusraig river, for it represents the drake domain's entry. All rivers had not been named, as some of them are very short in distance. Some rivers are named in honor of Dyrian or Mornerin gods. The mountains are there rich in minerals, such as clay, granite, sandstone and copper. There are several little bays, taiga plains and forests with a blooming fauna and flora.
This wide valley is the most rich and populated area of the all Barl Syrnac, and furthermore suited for agriculture (cereals). The sea is extremely rich in fish and crustacean, the fauna with animals, and the valley in medicinal and nutritive plants. That is why both the Dyrian and the Mornerin exiles built near the coasts several permanent settlements. Another reason is that enables them to better resist against Lothragh and Orcs assaults. The most important sites are Olyavud (Dy "Mountain Graceful Village), carefully protected in the mountains by frequent patrols and arranged traps, near river Uskäd (Dy "The River of Destiny"), Elyamû, near Dyr forest, and Yjuvït, at the mouth of river Lusraig.
The woodland of Dyr is stretched between the western bank of the Ujelsha River, and a spur of the Iron Mountains, the little Nojdä River, which is rich in clay and in copper. Formerly inhabited by the Dyrians, there is still in Dyr some abandoned villages, occasionally occupied by marauders, Lothragh raiders and Orcs. This vast and wild dark taiga is now occupied by two tribes of the Half-Dwarves the Fustir-Gost Umli, who are avoided by the Lothragh raiders.
South of Gondor and Mordor lies the vast desert of Haradwaith. Much of its western expanse lies under the dominion of Bellakar, a warlike kingdom of coasts and hills, lying between the deepest of seas and the most barren of wastelands. Together with the neighboring land of Raj (Bozisha-Miraz) to its southeast, Gondorian maps label Bellakar "Far Harad" (as distinct from Haruzan or "Near Harad"). Bellakar boasts a mix of different cultures: Númenírean, native Bellakaze, Aukuag tribesmen of the desert, Bozishnarod from Raj, and a tribal people from the East called the Tedjin. In such a varied realm, conflict seethes eternally.
Bellakar is divided into three different regions: Mardruak, Felayja and Bellazen. Hazaj Tollin is the most important city of Mardruak, a land where Umbar and Near Harad influence are very great, through the several invasion attempts led by Tedjin or Umbarean mercenaries. This is reflected in the cosmopolitan cities of Mardruak, mainly Narik-Zadan - an important trading center for Arnorian, Tulwanî and Seven Lands merchants. The Monastery of the True Faith, located in the mountain desert east of Hazaj Tollin, is the important religious center for Bellakar, and it is from there that priests come to teach the true Faith to the Bellakar inhabitants.
Felayja, the land of the Sun, is dominated by two great cities, Ûrêzâyan and Nîlûlondê, the capital of the mighty realm, the only ally of Gondor in the South. Felayja also hosts the two most important forest of Bellakar. In Auz Azunan ("Hills of the Spiritual People") and in Hau Nysrin ("Mountains of Virtue") live secretly the Honnin and the Cuind Elves).
Bellazen is a land of contrast, between Felayja and Bozisha-Dar. Bozisha-Dar, Tulwanî and Seven Lands merchants are very often there, especially in the cities of Korlea and Esmer. Bellazen is the Bellakarian stronghold, as it was from there that the Tumakveh rebuilt the realms and fought battles against the invaders, Tedjin or Bozishnarod alike. Korlea is the second most important city of the realm, and is unmatched as far as military protections.
Like neighboring Tana, Brôd is an inland realm situated near the southeastern shores of Endor. The Orosúlo (Q. "Mountains of the Wind") rise to the west, while the rivers Kirmías, Runk, and Breacna serve as the area's northern, southern, and eastern, boundaries, respectively. Since the Runk and Kirmías serve the two principal tributaries to the mighty Ams Breacna (which empties into the sea less than a hundred miles downstream from the Kirmías Junction), virtually all of Brôd is connected by a riverine highway.
Brôdim culture combines the indigenous Braric traditions with influences from nearby Wôl and Lochas. Wôlim and Brôdim peoples share a common language and social organization, and Braric political structure mirrors that found among the Lochaw.
Sôgôl, Runk, and Brôd are Brôd's three urban centers. Situated on the southern bank of the Kirmías in the northwest, Sôgôl commands the great pass through the Orosúlo known as the Wind Gates. It is the largest and wealthiest of the three towns. Brôd, which stands in the central hills, is home to only eight thousand people; however, it serves as both the political and spiritual center for all the Brôdim. The westernmost of the trio, Runk, is a little larger than Brôd; and, like Sôgôl, is a major river port. Located by the Runk Plunge, a waterfall where the Runk becomes unnavigable, it commands the only bridge across the river.
A plain white orb serves as the Braric symbol. The orb punctuates Brôd's Lochan-derived flag, which employs a four-color field. Divided diagonally, the rectangular field represents the four cardinal directions. Red denotes the East, green the South, purple the West, and blue the North.
Originally a small kingdom founded by Womaw colonists in the early Second Age, Brôd became one of the most important provinces of the Lochan Empire throughout the late Second and Third Ages. Following the final dissolution of the Empire in the 17th-century, Brôd actively engaged in empire building, thwarted by its equally aggressive neighbors and the overwhelming might of Waw.
Located on the northeastern coast of the Bay of Ormal, Bulchyades is a low, arid region known for its colorful, Chyan fishing culture. Its sparse population resides in three distinctly different areas. Most people live in the lower Denûly river valley. Some make their homes in the coastal fishing villages, while others live in fortified hamlets in the western foothills of the Ered Harmal. The latter make their living as herders or miners.
Although it produces fine fish, olives, and wine, Bulchyades is best known for its plentiful reserves of metal. Mining, metallurgy, and metal crafting account for most of the region's trade. Tin, brass, bronze, silver, and gold flow from the neighboring mountains.
A Chyan-speaking people, the Bulchya are related to all of their neighbors. They enjoy a stable, peaceful lifestyle, despite the fact that their relative wealth occasionally invites unwelcome Aca raiders from the warlike domain of Acaana.
A trio of silver spoons constitutes the symbol of Bulchyades. The Bulchya banner is red rectangle emblazoned with the three spoons, which are arranged in a vertical row.
An upland area noted for its hills and named for its hundred mile long lake, Burskadekdar is home to nearly a quarter million Adek-speaking people. Its ancient and diverse traditions lend it remarkable strength and stability. Burskadekdar traders, anglers, planters, and herders form the most resilient of eastern Endor's myriad plains culture. Its well-armed warriors enjoy an unparalleled record of martial success.
The city of Skad is the largest city in the region. Situated on an island in the midst of Lake Burskadekdar, it is renowned for its twenty-five stone causeways. These wide bridges connect the walled town to an outer ring, which is in turn joined to the mainland by five, fifteen-mile long, elevated roads. The five highways cross an array of both floating- and fixed-span bridges.
While the majority of the city's population lives in the walled core, over a third of the local residents reside in small hamlets along the ring or major causeways.
Although much smaller than Skad, the old town of the Burskadekdar remains an important ceremonial site. It is located in the hills of southwestern Burskadekdar. Like its name, the town's gold, ring-shaped emblem serves the entire region. It is the symbol of Burskadek unity, and adorns the pure black field of their twin-tailed flag.
Cevra is a very long island (83 miles long north-south, 81 miles long east-west on its largest part) situated in the northern part of Endor's Southern Archipelago and surrounded by coral reefs that are only seen at low tide. It is occupied by about two thousand Vulman-speaking residents. About a third live in Alcevrok and Ergaliê, ports located respectively on the Wur Cevrok (Vm. "Night-home Bay"), on the west-central coast and on the east extremity of the island, near Arth. Many of them are breeders, farmers or fishermen.
Cevra's generally thin soil still supports two rain forests, both of which stand toward the windward (eastern) side of the isle. Protected by the chain of central hills, the northwestern side of the island yields ample crops of grapes, citrus, and other fruits. Here, the soil is thicker. The local wine, which is sweet and fortified, is prized throughout the southern Middle-earth.
Chennacatt lies along the northern flank of the Ered Laranor, on an arid plateau bounded by the mountains and the rivers Chenna and Sîresha. It comprises the western portion of Greater Harad, the region the local Apysaic-speaking tribesmen refer to as "Sîrayn." Its modest population is concentrated in riverside towns, especially the walled city of Tartaust.
Although some residents of Chennacatt farm, most of the scattered rural folk herd goats or sheep. They produce wool that, like cotton and flax, is used in the region's thriving cloth and rug industries.
Chey Sart is situated in the center of Endor-between the Ered Harmal to the west, the serpentine Talathrant to the north, and the Chey Rill to the east. Although it is renowned as homeland of the Úlair Ren Jey (the eighth of the Nine Nazgûl), it is best known as the traditional center of Chey culture. Its most notable physical feature, the solitary volcano known as Ulk Chey Sart, is revered by all Chejan-speaking peoples as the birthplace of their culture. Aside from the Chey Hills two hundred miles to the northeast, the black peak is the only height interrupting the vast Sart grasslands (which measure six hundred miles from north to south and four hundred miles from east to west).
Situated west of the Chy Gap, a broad pass in the Ered Harmal, Chy is an arid, hilly area that sits astride one of Endor's most important overland trade routes. It is named for a confederation of Chyan-speaking tribes. This is the core land for the Chyan Empire, which incorporates also Ammu Baj, Bulchyades, Clyan and Lodenúly. The Empire is usually ruled by a High King (Ch "Rashaja"), either from Pelepelplû, or from Chajapûn (the capital of Lodenúly).
The Chyans are fierce enemies of the Easterlings of Khand and of Orcs, whom they kill on sight. They have a long-standing rivalry with the Aca warlords and the Múranians of Harshandatt, a realm they have managed to conquer several times during history. Their beliefs are not far from the Númenírean faith, as they revere the True One God Asruta and his fourteen children (to whom they place opposite the Great Demon and his fourteen children). They entertain a permanent embassy in Tûl Harar and in Abar-Narîk, capital of the realm of Anarikê, a Black Númenírean realm.
Pelepelplû, or "Strongflow," is the traditional capital of the region. Built on a collection of nine terraced hills, it is linked to the neighboring mountains by a collection of six, multi-tiered aqueducts. The elevated waterways are paired and linked in order to increase their stability. Besides conveying water from no less than three highland streams, they act as dual-level highways. Encircling the city, they also serve as fortifications. Each is a marvel of engineering and a testimony to the High-kings who commissioned their construction. The six monarchs - Ganashôshyn, Shôbûragan, Ganachyn, Ganshô, Tasagana, and Ganagan (in chronological order) - are all buried in towering tombs astride their respective aqueducts. Their monuments comprise six of the eighteen "Spires of Strongflow" (Ch. "Pit-apo-Pelepelplû").
Island-realm of Elves in south-eastern Middle-earth. Ruled by the parents of Elorior. The island was a virtual paradise, and not many Elves bothered to sail West despite the enmity of Dwar's Waw in the Second and Third Ages; the only notable time of departure was just after settlers from Waw seized the isle in 1507 TA.
Clyan is located on the arid southern flanks of the Ered Harmal, between Lurmsakun in eastern Harad and Chy. Most of the land of Clyan is rolling or rugged, standing well above the lowland deserts of Harad (averaging 2,000 feet), which helps to mellow Clyan's harsh climate. A Chyan-speaking people, the Cly tribesmen can boast of few mineral resources and little political unity. Most live in fortified hilltop villages, troubled occasionally by goblins from the Ered Harmal or Haradon raiders from the scrub deserts to the west. They subsist on cattle, sheep, and goats, most making their living by herding or rug making. The wealthiest of the Clyan villages serve as market centers for trade with wealthier lands.
Originally founded as a Vulmaw colony, Codya is the youngest and westernmost of the Womaw-related domains. It is positioned north of the mouth of the Bay of Ormal, near the southeastern tip of the Ered Harmal. Like Chy, Codya is also a region of contrast. The land is similar to Bellakar. Five different environments exist in Codya: the volcanic islands, a broad strip of coastland (about 20 to 60 km), the desert and the Treddas and Tem-Dazran mountains.
The most important city built in the archipelagos by the Vulmaw is Myrn Shryac, the inland city on the volcano's slopes, located in the Vultures Bay, near the frontier with Anarikê, designed to be the most important fortress of all the Codyan land.
The coastal grounds are extremely fertile, permanently irrigated by rivers, and favored by the weather. This is a coastal hilly wooded land, a very hospitable country, and consequently these are the lands with the highest population density in all of Codya.
In the stone hills, water from the few Codyan rivers sourced in Anarikê or in the Treddas Mountains empty into some dead alkali lakes. The ground is calcareous and the climate extremely arid.
The desert is as barren and arid as can be expected, but it is not the Mirror of Fire, as life, even if difficult, is still possible and exists. The desert is made of sands and rocks, with several oases. The Treddas Mountains and their offshoot the Tem-Dazran represent the natural frontier between Codya and Balkulôni. The mountains' peaks rise some 3000 meters above the sea. Few passes exists to provide travel to eastern Middle Earth. There are some important fortresses in the mountains, following the Vulmaw tradition of isolation.
One of the oldest Hildo realms, Cuivac Wômaw is the ancestral home of the Wômaw people - one of the four original Womaw tribes. It comprises the southeast portion of the great peninsula known the Quendi as "Cuivistar." This cool, grassy land is graced with rich soil, fine harbors, and a surprisingly moderate climate.
Cuiviénen was once situated between the steep western flank of the Orocarni (Q. "Red Mountains") and the eastern shore of the Inland Sea of Helcar. It served as the birthplace and original homeland of the immortal Firstborn. Essentially torn apart during the apocalyptic change after the Great Battle at the end of the First Age, both the Inland Sea and the land of Cuiviénen remain near-mythical locales.
Daldunair is a marshy land located around a two hundred mile-long lake of the same name. It lies deep in the plains of eastern Endor: east of the Rycolis, south of Lu Tyr Su, and west of Uster Kryl. The vast grasslands of Kargagis Ahar stretch far to the south. Its sweet water and strategic location astride one of Endor's busiest trade routes make Daldunair a choice prize for hungry conquerors. An isolated group of indigenous, Linerin-speaking fishermen and fowlers protect themselves from the frequent raiding and wars by living in Daldunair's numerous floating, lake-borne hamlets.
Comprising the eastern part of the central Talathrant basin, Dalpygis is a cool, rich, grassy steppe-land located in heart of Endor. It is a volatile area beset by frequent migrations, wars, and plagues. The indigenous Aharin-speaking groups often find themselves subjugated or confined to the surrounding hills.
Desdursyton lies along the Iron Mountains, on the eastern shores of the Bay of Illuin. It is best known, though, as the home of the Táratalamëar, a great mere situated atop the Táraparsa, Endor's largest butte. The Dysdirani consider the Táratalamëar (which they call "Gerlkûneshe" - the "Spirit-mere") a holy place. These fierce, Tyran-speaking Men are widely considered thieves and rogues, who serve no one.
The realm is for the first time unified in SA 2510 by Razeral, warlord of Rakiborzal with the support of an Orcish army form U-Lyshak. Like Rasedâkh of Kiebûk in Úrcheldor, Razeral accepts a ring of Binding; he is later known as the Plundering King, and is responsible for a campaign of plunder in the lands east of Desdursyton, and for the fall of Hisilondë by the end of Second Age.
Dhath is known to its Dilikhran inhabitants as "the land between the mountains." To the west, near the Niss Valley, is the Ûl-Buldaz chain. To the south are the Pontym coastal mountains, and to the east are the Iriagi Mountains. To the north, Dhath is bordered by a desert known as the Uljian. Dhath is a semi-arid land with average precipitation. It is a very windy land as well, and massive storms often strike the large basin.
Green grasslands are the feature of the Dhath region. Forests are only located to the north, near the Ûl-Buldaz mountains (which are also named by the Dilikhran tribes the Elkas mountains), with coniferous trees, and to the south in Lynahar with deciduous trees. There are also some large lakes near the Iriagi Mountains. Several intermittent rivers feed these lakes, which are full in winter and at a low level in summer.
The Dilikhran are nomads that are far from being united. They live in small hut villages, and are mostly farmers and nomadic pastoralists. Their only city is placed at the middle of Dhaht, and is named Widh Bôr (Di "the camp city"). It is in the hands of the Ulkis tribe. There are seven great Dilikhran tribes, and fourteen minor tribes.
Located south of the central Yellow Mountains (S. "Ered Laranor"), Dûshera is a warm, wet, hilly land crisscrossed by streams and punctuated with lakes and swamps. It lies between the Bay of Ûsakan to the west and the river Koros to the east. It is populated by a variety of peoples, most notably Chailuk-speaking Woses (in the remote hills) and Mûmakanin-speaking fisher folk (along the coasts).
Elorna is a low, flat coastal region located between the Belegaer and Yellow Mountains, in southwestern Middle-earth. The Onpu Mispór forms the area's southern boundary. A haven for migratory birds and other denizens of its vast tidal wetlands, it is ill suited to herding, farming, or other industries. Accordingly, Elorna remains the same dense and often impenetrable wild the Elves first spoke of during the early Second Age.
Ergahem is an island located in the southeastern part of Endor. Hilly, forested and sandy, the island is surrounded by coral reefs, which easily explains why mariners avoid approaching Ergahem, and are forced (if they want to go to Folyani), to go into the Sea of Winds (which is filled with pirates). There are several Râkhe settlements along the coasts. They are peaceful, and live off of the sea, and the phosphate found here which they trade to the Vulmaw and the Ohjanî. The climate is equatorial and very warm. The island is moderately covered with various tropical fruit trees.
One of the largest islands located off the coast of Endor, E-Sorul Sare is the principal isle in the vast Southern Archipelago. It is populated by the Sare people, Mûmakanin-speaking tribesmen known for their hunting, fishing, and rice-growing skills. Steep mountains dominate the central portion of the U-shaped island. Jungle covers portions of the long coastline.
The islands that form the Ulbâan chain (Islands of the Claws) are a treacherous maze of hidden reefs, mangrove swamps, and contrary currents. Without a knowledgeable pilot (who only can be hired from the locals), any ship venturing into the channels does it at maximum risk. The treacherous waters aside, these islands are also populated by Sâre people. It is believed that this is there that the ancestors of Sâre people first settled and built their first city, Miyin-Tar (now reduced in ruins through the conflicts with their Mûmakani and Tantûraki neighbours). These islands are barely hospitable, as it is poor in animal life and in flora (only a few palm and coconut trees). Nonetheless, some few villages exist, and greatly benefit for their survival of their proximity of Mulvyann (Island of the Shell).
The other major islands of the chain are Olyad (Great Island) and Mulvyann. Olyad is bounded on nearly every side by cliffs and flows of volcanic rock, except in the south. Like E-Sorul Sâre, the main landscape is mountain, with four peaks above 5000 feet (all extinct volcanos). The land is rich in limestone and basalt rocks. This is near a tropical forest and along the course of the Tonga River that are established the Sâre people, who cultivate oil palm, date, coconut and banana trees. Mulvyann is like an extension of E-Sorul Sâre. Similar landscapes can be seen there.
The climate of both islands is tropical, the temperatures are very high (but tempered by marine breezes and mainly trade winds), but rain is not generous during the summer season. In winter on contrary, the rain can be intermittent.
Faelaan is a two hundred mile long peninsula running southeastward from the eastern flank of the Orosúlo. The Romenëar washes against its northern and eastern shores, while the Yawning Bay forms its southern boundary. Hilly and well forested, Faelaan is a reasonably pleasant land. The mountains block much of the prevailing winds and a warm current insures safe sailing. Its principal river, the Oronsîr is rich in fish and, while swift, wide and deep enough to navigate for two-score miles.
Still, the area's relative isolation and shallow, rocky soils make it unattractive for many settlers. It remains a thinly populated region dominated by other peoples, notably the Aegaw, Argaw, Lochaw, and Ts'dan. In fact, the region's name is Womarin and means "Land of the Fale," for Faelaan is the ancestral home of the Fale tribes.
Folyani is the largest island located in the Sea of Winds. Unlike Nejhen, Folyani suffers little from tidal waves and earthquakes, as most of the borders of the island are made up of high cliffs and mountains, and there is little volcanic activity. The southern coasts provide several natural harbors and hilly coastal plains. There are four different groups of mountains, reaching up to 3000 meters, as high enough to be snow-tipped during winter. Four different rivers run from these mountains. There are also verdant and bounteous valleys, rocky soil, large lakes and deep forests.
This island is inhabited by the Ohjanî, distant relatives of the Lynîr and the three tribes of Edain. The Ohjanî may once have been part of the Lynîr migration, but lost their brothers in the dark forests of central Middle Earth. They managed to go south, traveling the hostile lands of Maaken and Aldhad, and reached the Sea of Winds. Not wanting to stay too long in Nejhen with the Nejhî pastoralists, they built small boats and eventually came, with some luck, to Folyani. They built small villages in the mountains, and in the following centuries, contacted the other human population of the Bay of the Coral Reefs, and the Elves of the nearby island, Cómonóemor. These peaceful contacts enable them to learn much from the Elves. The Ohjanî are great lovers of the arts, and their cities are magnificent, with golden palaces and exquisite temples to their gods.
Unlike the Lynîr, they were early on ruled by a King, who established in the sixth century the capital city of Thurbiandê in the mountains. The Ohjanî became expert in the arts of war and diplomacy, and soon dominated the nearby island of Ergahem, only occupied by a group of Râkhe-speaking traders and fisher-folk. They represent one of the four major powers of the Bay; the others being Jamna, Sakal an-Khâr and the Vulmaw.
Gaathgykarkan is a low steppe-land situated between Ibav and the Bleak Mountains. Characterized by short, lush grasses and gently rolling countryside, it is the southernmost plain among the vast array of flatlands stretching across central Endor. Its moderate climate and sheltered position provide inviting pasturage for its Aharin- (in the north) and Ibavin-speaking (in the south) residents, most of whom are herders.
Gan lies south of the eastern Ered Laranor (Q. "Yellow Mountains.") and north of the Bay of Gan. It is a warm, wet, hilly region noted for its deep lakes and lush, hardwood forests. Populated by both Mûmakanin- and Tuktanin-speaking peoples, it serves as a major shipbuilding center.
Once the center of a wealthy kingdom, Geshaan suffered by far the worst of the lands of the Mûmakan when the earth shook with the fall of Beleriand and the drowning of Angband. The level of the land sank and water collected there, but not into a lake, as it might. Instead, a swamp formed: an unclean place of rotting trees and creatures of darkness. The Koros River and the areas around it are suitable for traveling, for it has a swift current and permits no collection of foul refuse; but farther in, where the land is uneven and pools and mires collect, all manner of things grow. Within lies the city of Given and somewhere, the temple complex of Ty-Ar-Rana.
Situated north and east of the Womaw Reach, the easternmost arm of the Orocarni (Q. "Red Mountains"), Gòkien is a large, rugged peninsula. Thick hardwood forests occupy most of its rocky coasts, while swift, chilly rivers and extremely deep lakes dominate the inland areas along the mountain flanks. Ceer Gòak, a great swamp surrounding the mouth of the Gòak River (Wm. "Aceer Gòak"), lies in the southeasternmost corner of this ancient Womaw homeland.
Like the rest of the old "core-lands" of Womas Drus which includes Wôm Shryac, Kiangnan, and Maekche Gòak is named for the tribe that first settled its cool but temperate hills. Their tribal center at Alk-Gòak on Leer Gòak still serves as one of the Womaw's four capitals. Great hunters and fisherman, the Gòakaw are the most revered Womaw line.
Like the rest of the old "core-lands" of Womawas Drus - which includes Wôm Shryac, Cuivac Wômaw, and Mòak - Gòak is named for the tribe that first settled its cool but temperate hills. Their tribal center at Aalk Gòak on Leer Gòak still serves as one of the Womaw's four capitals. Great hunters and fisherman, the Gòakaw are the most revered Womaw line.
Situated along the northeastern flank of the Orocarni (Q. "Red Mountains"), Haen is a cold but temperate peninsula surrounded by the Weer Womaw (Wm. "Womaw Gulf"). Haenac Tataweer serves as the capital, but the Hion of Haen lives sixty-four miles to the north, at the Eight Tiered Hall above the watery Haen Steps. Established by the Aokos family - the most revered of Haen's original families-the hall is a major center of Womarin-based scholarship.
Harshandatt is an arid coastal region located east of the Haradwaith Desert. It lies along the western shores of the Bay of Ormal. Harshandatt is comprised of two dissimilar areas: firstly, the Núar valley and the coastlands, and secondly, the Jelhat Kurj (Mu. "Barren Desert"). While the valley of the Núar river and the coastlands are the only reasonably fertile zones in all of this country, the Jelhat Kurj extends over many square miles, parted in two by the river: to the south it meets with the Kirmlesran hills (and the Né-Tava to the southwest), and to the north it goes out of Harshandatt and fades gradually into the steppes next to the Ered Harmal. On the other side, the first reaches of the Mirror of Fire mark the western boundaries of Harshandatt.
Inhabited by the Múranians, Apysaic-speaking traders and fishermen, it comprises the easternmost region of Greater Harad. They are either independent (and when they are the Black Leopard's realm created in SA 625 is fully affirmed in Tûl Harar, in Chyan lands and in Anarikê), either under domination of the Chyan Empire.
A united kingdom, traditionally ruled by a strong monarch out of the capitol city of Tanith, Hathor is somewhat of an enigma for a realm on a peninsula. As is obvious to anyone studied in the ways of races, the Hathorians are not native to their land. Blond and blue eyed, with naturally fair skin (though tanned by the sun), they apparently migrated to their present land long ago, although certainly not by sea. As a race, they fear the open sea like no other - even more so than the Dwarves do. Short trips about the Koros Bay or even along the southern coast bother them not at all, but just the mention of a long sea voyage will drain the color from the face of even the bravest Hathorian warrior. This of course is a source of endless amusement for their Elven neighbors, as the Hathorians are not afraid of much else; in fact, they are considered reckless by other standards.
The king maintains an army of respectable size to guard the borders facing potential enemies. The Hathorians traditionally do not wear armor, but carry light, very effective shields, and are excellent with the composite bow and broadsword.
The hill country of the Heb Aaraan lies fast against the steep eastern face of the Suncrown, the highest and most rugged peaks of the Ered Harmal, high above the adjoining lands and consequently wooded and relatively well watered. Its people are Chyan-speaking woodsmen who are often dominated by the more powerful lords of nearby Chey Sart.
The name Aaraan is itself Avarin Elvish. Much of the country near to the mountains or away from the major caravan trails is inhabited by the Taarun, an Elvish people. They are rumored to live in several exotic cities situated in beautiful mountain valleys. Lords of the warlike Chey from east of the mountains, and the more civilized Haruze from the western slopes, have occasionally sent armies into the mountains to find the Gleaming Cities of Heb Aaraan. Few survivors returned from these expeditions and these claim to have seen only small villages of well-cut stone and hedge, guarded by Spirits of Fire and Storm.
Neither the Taarun or the Mannish hill-clans of the Heb Aaraan contest the control of the mountain passes with nations who send trading caravans over the Ered Harmal, so an uneasy peace usually reigns throughout the region even in times torn by war. The Heb Aaraan's few towns deal in timber, animal hides and exotic medicinals. Although there are no active volcanoes in the Ered Harmel, the titanic forces that raised the mountains still regularly release heat from deep within the earth. The region boasts a multitude of hot springs, some renowned for their healing powers. Heb Aaraan's largest lake, the Chyasraan, is fifty miles in length, all of it warmed by hot mineral waters, so that it perpetually steams through the chills of deep winter.
Helcar Sael lies along a narrow coastal shelf on the eastern flank of the Orocarni (Q. "Red Mountains"). It comprises the rich and well-protected Sael Valley, which once served as the principal eastern route into Cuiviénen. The uppermost part of this wide river vale is called Parth Úrulis, the "Field of Fire-honey," in name of its nectar-rich flowers. The Cirith Úrulis is the main pass through the central Orocarni. It leads east and then north to Moinarlin - "Monarlan" in the Womaw tongue - a great collection of waterfalls that spill into a pool that feeds the river Cuivisîr and the great lake of Helkanen in Helcarth.
Úrulis is actually a cross-shaped vale. The centermost portion is home to the hallowed Ayiigawm, the "Dragon-fields," where the Womaw bury their High-kings - the so-called "Hionvori." Here, a complex of huge, circular grass barrows linked by stone-lined subterranean halls covers an area of about sixty-four square miles. Haututumkodur stands at the center and serves as the resting place for the golden drake that helped educate and unite the founders of Womawas Drus. The Avari of Helcarth refer to the place as "Angulíkaparsi." Though the Elves regularly pass by the area, they are careful to respect its sacred boundaries. Ironically, few Hildor ever see the place. Most turn away when they see one of the sixteen laen Dragon statues that mark the border of the burial ground.
Tatamúrilis, a Womaw port city near the mouth of the Sael, and the province capital, houses nearly three quarters of the area's hundred thousand Womarin-speaking residents. Aligned along four huge, interconnected bridges, it is a marvel of stonemasonry. The town serves as the principal point of exchange between the Womaw, Aegaw, and the Avari. It is the chief city in the Red Gulf (which the Aegaw call the "Bay of Swirling Waters").
The Avari have a small settlement in Calentaur, the forest north and west of Tatamúrils. These Elves trade with the men of Tatamúrilis and with their brethren on the western side of the Orocarni.
The Khazâd reside to the south of the Cirith Úrulis. Originally from the northern reaches of the Orocarni, the Khazâd relocated to the south of the Cirith Úrulis after stripping the northern mountains of their wealth. Sections of the northern mountains are riddled with mineshafts and glory holes testimony to the Khazâd desire to work the materials of the earth.
Situated around a long, exceedingly deep lake tucked into the steep western flank of the Orocarni (Q. "Red Mountains"), a remnant of the now-lost Inland Sea of Helcar, Helcarth is a mysterious Avar realm. Legends suggest that it constitutes part of ancient Cuiviénen, the old coastal home of the Quendi. Helcarth's Elven overlords live in a beautiful, pastoral land characterized waterfalls and streamside parks. A great circular earth-wall surrounds their kingdom. Thus, the Avari remain apart from the Hildor. The three entries into Helcarth all follow long, heavily guarded channels and passageways.
Only the East-gate, the "Doors of Morning," is kept unlocked. They open toward Moinarlin (Q. "Dear Exalted Mere"), a pool fed by three waterfalls and the birthplace of the river Cuivisîr. The Doors of Morning actually open onto a grass-covered road that winds under the great cataract spilling out from Moinarlin. The fall forms a watery arch that gives birth to a virtually perpetual rainbow.
The Cuivisîr is one of three major streams emptying into the great lake of Helkanen. Helkanen is all that remains of the Gaer Helcar. Its cold shores form the core of the Avari's guarded homeland.
Hildírien, the "Land of the Followers," was the birthplace of Men (Hildor) in the First Age. Now mostly submerged beneath the Gulf of Hildírien, it lay south of Cuiviénen, in the Farthest East of Middle-earth. Its southern boundaries skirt the northern flanks of the Mountains of the Wind. Ralian lies to the west.
Horl is located south of Ralian, along the western flank of the Orosúli (Q. "Mountains of the Wind"). Inhabited by a Horlek-speaking people, it is a rich, temperate plateau.
Ibav is a low, flat land located between Lochas Drus and the Bleak Mountains, surrounded by hardwood forests. Ibavin-speaking people, the Ibaavi, live in the central plain and on the eaves of the forests, dominated by a tribal warrior class and a powerful priesthood ruled by a single King.
The Niss River rises in the Tem-Eskam, a mountain chain splitting from the Ered Harmal that rises some 3000 meters above sea level. The river is fed by two glaciers, as well as the torrential rains falling on the mountain peaks. Few passes exist to provide safe travel to Northern Endor, as the mountains are infested by Orcs. Only one known road is in use. The climate is cooler than in the neighboring regions of Uljian and Ûrakhan. In winter, the mountains are entirely covered by snow, which renders the pass much more difficult.
The mountains, like many others, are particularly rich in minerals: there can be found in these old vulcan peaks a predominance of quartz, feldspar, and mica. These minerals (as well as many others) glow in the dawn light. These minerals are highly desired by Vulmaw or Ûrakhan merchants, who engage mercenaries companies to fight against Orcs if necessary to obtain them. There are also copper mines and marble quarries in the mountains here.
Idurâk is the breadbasket of the northern Niss valley, as to the north the land is surrounded by desert and steppes. The valley is quite hilly, there are many coniferous forests (pines, oaks, and willow) along with some more tropical and exotic trees. The river valleys of Niss and Nusar are fertile and lush. Of the two, the Niss valley is more fertile, thanks to the cool air coming from the mountains and to more frequent rainfall.
The Idurâk, distantly related to the Chyans, have lost the nomadic ways of their ancestors, probably when in contact with the Verikis and Senûr peoples (tribal peoples related to the Elinse). The most important city, the capital of Idurâk, is Idûm ("the City of the God"), which is very famous for its concentric walls and its temple with seven platforms (called Ziggourat). There are many villages, very often fortified, and always dedicated to one particular god of the Idurâk pantheon, with one important rule: local gods are not revered everywhere and some are considered as blasphemous by others. The Idurâk civilization is centered on rivers Niss, Nusar and the Ishlût (as it is considered the frontier with the Ûrakhan realm).
The forest east of Ibav, also called the Great Forest, separates this land from Lochas Drus, forming an unsurpassable barrier. This huge hardwood forest is inhabited by Avar Elves, the Awartasi (Aw. "Forsaken Ones"), who call their land Imaldawath (Aw. "Under the Trees' Shade"). Seduced and deceived in the Elder Days by Morgoth, they have created a peculiar Elven civilization in a bizarre balance between Elven nature and the awaiting of the Dark Master's return.
Iskahú lies tucked between the Great Forest of Urd and Aeareryn in Northeastern Middle-earth. Situated about two hundred miles west of the Sea of Thilluin, it is populated by a rugged, reclusive Mornerin-speaking people, often subject to the rule of the Urdar.
An arid, somewhat hilly land located along the northeastern flank of the Ered Laranor (Q. "Yellow Mountains"), Isra is part of Sîrayn - "Greater Harad." It comprises all the land including and between the Maudar and Sîrsis river valleys. Its sedentary, Apysaic-speaking population is concentrated in the two vales, both of which support substantial agricultural communities. Their principal crops include wheat, rice, and cotton.
Jamna ("Coast of the Black Sand"), located to the east of Sakal an-Khâr on the bay of Coral Reefs, is very often covered by clouds of black ash from the volcanic Unayâ ("Jagged Ridge") in the east. The Chasrû, a people distantly related to the Zurghîr and the Jopî, populated these lands. The climate is of monsoon type, relatively dry, cool winter from Girithron to Ninui, dry hot summer from Gwaeron to Lothron, the northwest monsoon brings dry weather from Norui to Urui, and the southeast monsoon brings the wet season (maritime winds and precipitations) from Ivaneth to Hithui.
In the east are the Unayâ and their foothills. Parallel with the Jagged Ridge are the northern plains, which extend from west to east. These plains were originally an inland sea that had been filled through time by deposits brought down by rivers, especially the Erala and the Usufa. Now these plains are quite hilly and forested.
Ulakâj, a coastal plateau that is relatively dry and deforested, forms most of southern Jamna. It is also the most fertile area of all Jamna, thanks to the west winds coming from the Jagged Ridge that bring rich black ash to the soil. There are very few sandy beaches - instead tall black cliffs rising hundreds of feet above the sea dominate the shoreline. At its eastern edge lies the Ejhât, a low range of hills and a broad coastal plain. The Erela is not only Jamna's most important river (taking its source from the Jagged Ridge); it is also considered sacred by the Chasrû.
These lands were not considered of interest to the Númeníreans of Sakal an-Khâr until the reign of King Ar-Sakalthor. Gold was discovered in the Erela River, and rubies were found along its banks. This land suddenly became more interesting to the potentates of Sakal an-Khâr. There, on the mouth of River Erela, the Númeníreans established a fortified outpost called Nimir Kadar, the Shining City, and its port became one of the largest and busiest of all the ports of Middle-earth. Near the largest gold deposits the nobles of Númenírean and Chasrû descent built fortresses, and a new name for the land came into the common use - Pharazain, the Golden Lands.
Jendiar is situated along the southwestern flank of the Orocarni (Q. "Red Mountains"). It is occupied by Linerin-speaking farmers and herders. Best known for its vast system of subterranean wells and channels, it yields large, steady crops of grain and hearty fruits.
Jojojopo lies at the southern end of the Akensûhn mountains, on a peninsula sundering the Shay Bight to the east and Sunum to the south. Blessed with countless harbors, a mild climate, and a wide variety of mineral-rich landscapes, its Narnerin-speaking Jopî residents have enjoyed relative stability and prosperity since the early part of the middle of the Second Age.
Kael is located just east of the central Orocarni (Q. "Red Mountains"). It lies along the southwestern shores of the Weer Womaw, the gulf west of the Womaw Sea (Wm. "Oweer Womaw"). Famous for its "Stone-walks," four covered highways, it is a civilized and well-settled land. Only the swamps of northern and eastern Kael remain untamed.
Hilly and forested land north of the Ams Breacna and east of the Orosuli. Ts'dan from V'Shrang conquered Ka'ish in S.A. 323-48. There, in Shelf-lands east of the southern Orosúli, they established the K'Prur culture. Their Narnerin-speaking descendants reside throughout the heavily-wooded Proric peninsula, while intermingling with various local groups. Ts'eml, K'il, K'iv, K'fig, and H'ent comprise the area's major towns. A province of the Lochan Empire on the northwestern peninsula of Lochas Drus, in the 16th-century TA Ka'ish seceded from the Lochan Empire and managed to hold its own against the failing Dral line and its allies. Ka'ish under King Zemkar ul nearly succeeded in gaining the Empire when he married the last Dral Hionvar's widow. By the end of the Third Age, however, the region was known as "Old Ka'ish," a backwater region.
Kargagis Ahar is vast grassland in east-central Middle-earth. Located on a 3,000-foot high plateau, it lies about halfway between the Talathrant and Endor's eastern highlands. It is populated by numerous Aharin-speaking tribal confederations. Most are semi-nomadic herders.
Situated along the southeastern flank of the Orocarni (Q. "Red Mountains"), west of the river Orosîr, Karn Ord is populated by a mix of Aegaw and Ubain peoples. Most speak Womarin, although many in the western highlands speak an old Linerin dialect.
Kaylund is an island nearly all covered by forest, except in a few areas. Like Sunum, Kaylund is a Vulmaw colony, famous for its wine exported all over the Bay, from Codya to Lochas Drus. When Lochas Drus fell, Kaylund was submitted by force to the Folyani hegemony, and later the Cha-t'o mercenaries established here a realm of their own under their great leader Yoenkë.
Khând stretches between the southeastern flank of the Ephel Duath and the northwestern edge of the Ered Harmal. It occupies the semi-arid plateau bordering northeastern Harad and thus commands the great Khând Gap, the hundred mile wide pass facing southern Rhûn and eastern Mordor. Nûrad lies in the hills to the northeast.
Hot, dry, and windy, Khând is an unforgiving locale. Its flat, lowland areas afford few means for stable settlement. Scrub and desert abound throughout Lower Khând. Here, horse herders move their lightly encumbered bands around a circuit of periodic shelters and encampments, their routes dictated by the location of springs, seasonal pools, and intermittent streams. The only permanent settlements lie along the broad, shallow Knife River, a tributary of the Harnen. Sturlurtsa Khând - the traditional capital of Lower Khând and the largest city between Umbar and the Talathrant - stands by the confluence of the rivers Knife (V. "Noz Peka") and Gold-horse (V. "Medlíshad Peka"). It is the home of the powerful Ûrpof and Oléna clans.
Upper Khând, which comprises the eastern and northern quarters of the region, enjoys a bit more rainfall and cooler temperatures. The more numerous tribes of the area are generally richer and more settled than their brethren to the west and south. Upper Khand's principal city, Ûbésêsh-ûta-Pavéter (V. "Refuge from the Flailing Wind"), stands only about 170 miles east and upstream from Sturlurtsa Khând; however, it receives twice the precipitation and a lot less heat than its larger and more important counterpart. The town is home to the Irbo clan.
Lâorkó is the sister city of Ûbésêsh-ûta-Pavéter and the second town of Upper Khând. The home of the Achef clan, it has produced most of the Variag kings. Ûvathar Achef, the greatest conqueror of the line, became the ninth of Sauron's accursed Ringwraiths.
Ûvathar (aka "Ûvatha") was born at the Caves of Ôlbamarl. The vast caverns wind up and down through a mountain spur located in the southeastern part of the Ephel Duath (S. "Shadow-fence"). They include two permanent towns and seven shrines. Here, the bones of many Kings are entombed (the Variag successors strip the meat from, and then eat, their fallen monarchs).
All seven of the Variag confederations speak Varadja and share a common culture rooted in an ages-old reverence for the horse. Superb riders and warriors, they are without peer as cavalry.
Hyarn lies along the southwestern coast of Endor, between the Belegaer and the western flank of the Ered Laranor. The river Aronduin (S. "Woods-river") forms its northern border. Although colonized by Númeníreans, it is actually an Aden realm founded by Apysaic-speaking Haradrim. Relatively pureblooded Adena reside throughout the inland, most of which is semi-arid scrub or grassland. More wealthy mixed-blooded descendants of the Adan settlers live by the coast or in rich river vales along the area's northern boundary. Many of the latter group deals in the region's numerous timber products.
Kirakh is a modest-sized group of hilly islands in the southeastern part of Endor's Southern Archipelago. Hilly and sandy, they are known for having poor soil and little water. Like many of the neighboring islands, Kirakh chain is populated by Râkhe-speaking traders and fisherfolk. The first notable exception is Nômirakh, the westernmost isle. Its central lake is home to dozens of varieties of strange and often unique acquatic species. The second exception, the easternmost island, Kirakh is covered by sandy beaches and whitish stalagmite spreading out over 10 kilometers square, which seen from the sea is quite an impressive spectacle. Of an oval form, Kirakh is entirely surrounded by coral reefs that emerges from sea at sea tide. There are several Râkhe settlements along the coasts. They are peaceful, and live from the product of the sea, and from the phosphate, which is exploited by the Vulmaw of Vulm Shryac. The climate is equatorial, the temperatures are rather high (about 25 to 35 °C). The island is moderately covered banana, coconut, pandanus, papaws trees. Many of the other islands are not inhabited or explored, and nearly all have a vulcanic origin, like the Llikh chain.
Kirmlesra is located to the north of the lower reaches of the Sîresha River, near the southwestern shore of the Bay of Ormal. It comprises one of the lands of Sîrayn, or "Greater Harad." Arid and hilly, it is known for its light, porous, and often alkaline soil. Few, save the hardiest of plants, enjoy any hope of surviving in this unforgiving domain. It is not surprising that virtually all of Kirmlesra's Apysaic-speaking residents live on its southern fringes, in the northern Sîresha Valley. Those that reside elsewhere live near the deep wells of the area's few oases.
More than any other realm in the Mumakan area save Tantûrak, Koronande is a united country. Also worthy of mention is the fact that the government of Koronande is a republic, extremely rare in Middle-earth.
The majority of the elected officials in this mixed Kirani/Elven country are Kirani, not that the Elven population is subjugated in any way; rather, even the Elves elect Kirani representatives, knowing that they themselves lack the initiative to participate actively in what they consider a 'complex' government. On the other hand, many of the Koronande legislators and governors have Elven advisors, who often survive several turnovers of office, being excellent noncommittal sources of information and wisdom. As may be expected, the Elves inhabit the more rural, forested areas of Koronande, constructing beautiful and elaborate homes in the branches of the huge trees, which often grow to heights exceeding 200' the greatest example of which is Tauronde, the city which presides over the district of the same name, north and west of Korlan. It is almost entirely Elven in population, and its governor and senate representatives are Elves (it has been speculated that there is Noldorin blood in some of the Elves of Tauronde, for, of all the immortals only the Noldor showed great drive and perseverance). Tauronde the city is in fact a cluster of the Luraks, lord trees of the jungle, into the branches of which have been built elaborate homes and shops, inns and halls, all well over one hundred feet above the jungle floor. The capitol of Koronande is Korlan, on the mouth of the Koros River. The realm is divided into six districts, each having its own main town and governor. The Senate consists of twelve members, two from each of the districts, who meet monthly for three days to decide matters of concern to the realm as a whole. The Republic has a strong navy, the only one in the region that can contest that of Tantûrak - no doubt part of the reason that country attacked them, and the reason that attack failed. They are the traders of the Mumakan and, not surprisingly, Korlan is the main trading city, and a center of commerce. The Elves of Taaliraan have a more extended trading network, but their volume is a fraction of the Koronandan's.
The largest island chain in the Romenëar, Kosth Leer is comprised of nine major, and hundreds of minor, isles. Kael is located just east of the central Orocarni (Q. "Red Mountains"). The archipelago delineates the northern boundary of the Womaw Sea (Wm. "Oweer Womaw"). To the west is the Weer Womaw, the or "Womaw Gulf," while the frigid Helkëar lies to the north.
Unlike Uiven to the south, Kosth Leer is surrounding by cold, shifting currents and strong north winds. It is a rugged and nearly treeless domain populated by tough Womaw seafarers. Tatamaac Pîvaan, the capital, houses no more than ten thousand residents.
Kúbor Sêd lies along the northeastern edge of Endor's broad East-plain. A hardwood forest separates it from Iskahú to the northwest. Its northern and eastern boundaries are defined by the vast taiga forest known as the Illuin Wood. The Sea of Illuin is situated about two hundred miles to the north, on the other side of the primeval woodland.
The Kúbor, a collection of Mornerin-speaking herders and trappers, reside throughout the cool, grassy Sêd fields. They are relatives of the Rúbor peoples, who make their home in the higher lands to the southwest.
Kykurian Kyn lies east of Rhûn, above the western banks of the Talathrant. A vast grassland characterized by intermittent collections of rolling hills, it is populated by a host of ever-shifting Ulgathic- and Ioradja-speaking peoples. The former group, which dominates westernmost Kyn and eastern Rhûn, are known throughout Gondor as the "Wain-easterlings." The latter are often referred to as the "Balchoth."
Long and hilly, Llikh is the largest island in the group of the same name. It is lies about two hundred miles off the south coast of Endor, in the vast Southern Archipelago. Over four hundred miles long, it is one of the larger islands in the Haragaer. Like Amirakh to the south, Llikh is populated by Râkhe-speaking traders and fisher folk.
The human implantation concentrates mainly near the coasts, and mainly in the east or in the south. Fayn, the city chief port is located in the Lu-Shi bay (Vulm "Shell"), where are can be found trout, lobsters, huitres, crabs, as well as different fishes and many shells (which easily explains the bay name). Fishing is the first resource of the island, resold in the markets of Cevra and Llikh.
Immediate to that bay, Ulshan and Sâskh islands (Vulm "Islands of the Slaves"), which shows a similar landscape (mountain, forest and sandy beaches) than Llikh, is mainly known for Hanawa, the chaos city and for Asaât Mount, an old vulcan still in activity, which dominates Hanawa bay. In the northern part of the island, a native population, relative to the Sâre live there, and it is usual for them to propell victims to the vulcans in order to receive benediction and peace from their gods. This faith is a good source for slaves for Hanawa pirats. Unknown to the natives, who are rather reclusive, only a slight pourcentage of victims are really precipitated into the vulcan. The others are then resold everywhere on the Southern Archipelago or in every trading center in the North at exorbitant tariffs.
In S.A. 347 Woma Dral, Hion of the Surk (a tribe of the Womaw) brought his great fleet to Cleaac, on the southeastern coast of Endor. He was in search of new and fertile territory for his tired horde of Vulmaw warriors. The residents of the area at that time called themselves the "Lakhab" (lit. "Coast folk"), and lived in modest communities situated by the rocky promontories where their warlords erected citadels of earth and rude stonework. An armed landing by a Surk battle group set the tone for subsequent relations between the two peoples. So the Cunaaci-aac-Aalkbroda' (L. "Battle of Hillholds") decided who would be master of the fertile lands west of the Ams Breacna' (L. "River of Great Memories"). Woma Dral was given the Laath of Hionvor on the first day of S.A. 348 (the first year of the Lochan Second Age). His reign initiated a new period in the history of southeastern Endor; for the first time, an organized, centralized society embarked on a campaign of conquest. Woma Dral began to carefully shape the nature of his new "Lochas" (L. "Never-ending Glen") from the very outset. Using a modest set of laws that had been brought from his homeland of Uon on Vulm Shryac, he fashioned a state based on the eight traditional kindreds of Vulmaw. Four pairings of tribal moieties were settled in distinct geographical districts: (1) in Halocha, the Shom and Vaeliic, both Surk, settled; (2) the Tawurk, Wom and Runaas, lived in the western Haen of Rualocha; (3) the Moak, including the Niviis and Chorn, held Diolocha; and (4) the Narig, composed of the Krawn and Uoniis tribes, held sway along the Breachna in Maralocha.
Lochas Drus, the "Dominion of the Lochaw" encompassed all of the areas once ruled by the lords of Lochas proper; the Lochans were descendents of Womaw colonists from Thuriac Codya. Administrative units were organized along Womaw cultural lines and basically correspond to traditional ethnic areas. This system had been instituted by the first Dral Hionvar, Woma Dral, and lasted until his descendent Oervik Dral was driven from the throne and forced to commit suicide in 27 TA.
The Dral clan under Demik Dral had again taken control of the empire in 1148 TA; his descendents ruled until the coming of the Shadow in 1617. Lochas Drus was not the great power it had been, however, and the Empire was reeling in the face of renewed Wôlim aggression. Dwar had returned to Waw in the 11th century TA and convinced his people to throw off Lochan rule, both on Waw and in the ancestral homeland of Wôl. In 1507 they conquered the last of the southeastern islands, the Elven sanctuary of Cómínóemor, and Waw declared itself the center of the Second Wôlim Empire in 1617. The Dog-lord's ships began assailing the Lochan coasts, raiding deep into Wôl and Brôd.
The last Lochan Hionvar, Oervik-dem Dral, died leading his forces into battle against Ka'ish in 1659. His army consisted chiefly of his own personal forces, the men of Brôd, allied with troops from Horl and Unvirnay; auxiliary troops from Wôl marched beside them. Ka'ish had seceded from the empire, allying itself with an occupation force from Waw. Oervik-dem was a fine military tactician, but he did not allow for the treachery of the Wôlim, who joined their distant kinsmen from Waw on the second day of battle. Caught between two armies, the Lochans were crushed, and Oervik-dem 's head was taken back to Waw as a trophy. Oervik-dem had three daughters and an infant son. One of the daughters was married to the lord of Wôl, the other two were hostages at the court of Dwar. Oervik-dem's widow, Chandica, tried to rally the Lochan court around her infant son and install herself as regent until he could come of age. It was not to be. The Lord of Ka'ish, Zemkar Sul, pursued his advantage, raiding the Brôd court and carrying Chandica back to Ka'ish. He forcibly married her and laid claim to the Lochan throne, only to be crushed as a rebel by the combined forces of Waw and Wôl. After the division of the Lochaw empire in T.A. 1794, various successor kingdoms and confederations arose, many of which were based on ancient cultural divisions or claims. While striving to eliminate any obvious vestiges of their long-standing subserviency, they often retained the names and borders bequeathed by their Lochan- speaking overlords.
Lídenûly lies west of the southern Ered Harmal, just south of Chy and the nearby Chy Gap. Flanked by the rivers Denûly and Acaadôky, it is a gently rolling, semi-arid plain occupied by Chyan-speaking herders and farmers. Vegetation inland is similar to that of Chy, but near the banks of the two rivers there are forests and crops, because the terrain is extremely fertile.
Chajapûn is the most impressive city (save Pelepelplu) of all the Chyan empire. The city is built at the junction of river Acaadôky and Denûly, near an important swamp land, on the location of an old Chailla holy site. Because of its central position, Chajapûn is the ideal choice for a capital, though it is more complex that it seems, as Chajapûn and Pelepelplû became during history capital, and of course alternatively. Chajapûn is the greatest city of all the Chyan empire, with 150.000 inhabitants. This is a magnifiscent city, with processionnal avenues, colourful walls, numerous palaces, important temples dedicated to the one True God Asruta and several other stranger deities.
Lotan is situated to the west of the mouth of the river Talathrant, to the east of Ulshy, along the southern shore of the Bay of Utûm. A deciduous forest covers most of its northern reaches, while dense marshlands occupy the river valley to the east. The rest of the area consists of a cool, rich grassland. Ulgathic-speaking herders dominate the region.
Luindor (S. "Blue Land") is an Avar realm bordering on Urd and the Sea of Thilluin. It is a cool and pleasant land - like all realms blessed with the presence of the Firstborn. Widely considered one of the most civilized Avarin realms - thanks to the visit of Noldorin and Sindarin wanderers across its history - Luindor is the sworn enemy of Urd. Though subject for more than 1000 years in the Second Age to the rule of the Ice King, the Luindrim retain their strong independent spirit, fighting their enemies without quarter.
The easternmost land of the true Haradrim, Lurmsakun is blessed by great wealth and cursed by its place in the world, on the borders of the violent realms of the Variags and Chey. The people of Lurmsakun speak Haruze, a language shared by their brethren living in cities and farming villages as far west as the Sundering Sea in distant Harondor. The Haruze, as they are fond of reminding their neighbors, were a sophisticated trading race even before the "Poganin," primarily the Númeníreans and Variags, came to trouble them in the mid-Second Age. Often conquered and ravaged, Lurmsakun still boasts cities of immense beauty, surrounded by lush irrigated fields of grain, melons, wine-grapes, and dates. Three river basins are the center of Lurmsakun's life and trade: The Rill-basin of the Ode Pezar, the Arysis of the River Rysis, and Siakan, the vale of the Ode Siak. The Ode Pezar runs westward to the Sundering Sea, eventually becoming the River Harnen, the contested frontier between Gondor and Umbar. The Rysis and the Siak flow from the snow-touched peaks of the Ered Harmal southwestward to vanish into the lifeless salt marshes of the Kref Masar, one of the more hellish of the wastelands of the Haradwaith. The river valleys of Lurmsakun form a great contrast with the deserts, consisting of lush belts of greenery supporting teeming hordes of peasants and shrewd traders and merchants. Arysis lies south of Sturlurtsa, royal seat of Khand, and sits squarely astride the caravan routs connecting western and central Endor. Its largest city, Maresh, is the greatest city of the Endorian interior in any era in which the Variags are not draining its wealth into their own lands. Siakan, naming itself the Jewel of Mountain and Sun, controls trade between southern and western Endor. Its lords and kings, however, are oft conquered by the more warlike Variags, Chy, Chey, and Ahar peoples living just beyond its frontiers.
Also called Sinkiang; plains between the Talathrant River and the Orocarni Mountains. Covering much of the northeastern part of Endor's East-plain, Lurs Vorganis is the homeland of the Vorgani, a Tyran-speaking tribal confederation renowned for their ability to exploit and slaughter vast numbers of large game. Huge herds of grazing beasts live throughout the region.
Lu Tyr Su
Lu Tyr Su stretches across most of the northern part of Endor's East-plain. Covered with short grasses, it makes for relatively poor pastureland. Still, scattered tribes of shepherds and big game hunters call the area home. Nearly all speak Tyran.
Kingdom of Pallando in eastern Middle-earth. Situated about three hundred miles west of the Orocarni, Lygar Kraw is a marshy land. Swamps and ponds dot its lowland reaches, which are sundered by dense hills. Two fen forests (one in the east and the other in the west) frame the territory. Most of Lygar Kraw's Linerin-speaking people lived in fortified hill towns, where they engage in a broad array of crafts and subsist on a varied diet; hunting, fishering, gardening, and animal husbandry are all practiced.
The historical kingdom was founded in 2114 TA by the Khitan prince Yeh-lü Ta-shih, following the defeat of his people by the Jurchaen; Pallando settled here in about 2300 and founded the kingdom of Fëamardi. The heraldic device of Lygar Kraw under Pallando was a spinning wheel on charcoal grey; his personal guard were the fearsome Black Crows under the ghost Li K'o-Yung. The borders of Lygar Kraw were marked by ebony obelisks with white letters, with Pallando's power demarcated in Sindarin, Quenya, Logathig and Womawas.
Located to the north of the Zurghôr jungle and to the east of the river Niss valley, the land remained for a long time unpopulated, except by some Pêdi Elf tribes, until the arrival of a small band of refugees, the Lynîr, distant relatives of the three tribes of Edain in the West. The Lynîr established themselves as one of the major powers in the Bay, as they conquered Balkulôni, the Aikyen islands, and even negotiated a special alliance with the Dwarves of Khelek-zâram in Lynahar. The Lynerian League is bordered on the north by the Pontym mountains, and to the south and the east by river Alujedî. The Lynîr are gifted mariners, sending embassies to the west as far as Sîrayn, and to the east as far as Sunum.
The largest part of the land is composed of a central plateau, with plains, coniferous and tropical rainforests. Near the coasts the plains consist of gently undulating lowlands, with an elevation of about 200 meters above sea level. The coasts alternate between rocky cliffs, sandy beaches, and estuaries. From north to south, several important rivers flow from east to west, the most important of which is the River Alujedî, along which is built a line of seven fortresses dedicated to the protection of the Lynerian territory against the hostile Zurghîr sects.
The most important cities are built along the coasts, such as Caryalon, Emelcyn and Aerlond. In the north, Lynahar has a special status inside the Lynerian League as the province is jointly ruled by Lynîr and Dwarves. The Pontym mountains have valuable mineral resources (such as copper and gems) that are usually sold in Ephydis, the most important trading center in the Eastern Ormal Bay, where traders from the Chyan Empire, Codya and the Lynerian League can be seen. Caerdhyan is the key to the protection of all Lynahar, as it is located near the only safe pass between Lynahar and Dhath - the White Goat Pass. Caerdyan protects the realm against the assaults of the Dilikhran tribes, and Harbâz plays the same role in the south against the Zurghîr sects.
It is believed that the Ormal lamp fell near the Aykien islands, which are a melange of hills, high cliffs, coniferous forests and sandy beaches. These islands were settled in mid Second Age by the Lynîr. There are two different maritime routes to get to the islands; one to the north (through the ports of Nirshat and Gimil), and one to the south (to Sakal an-Khâr). The archipelagos located south of Nyzd are highly dangerous, because of the very strong currents.
The Lynerian League has a temperate climate, despite a location on an equatorial latitude. This is explained by the northern eastern barrier composed by the Iriagi and the Durvîd Mountains and by the cooler water on the Lynîr coast caused by an abyssal current. The main roads are well maintained and paved.
Maaken is a forested hilly land located to the south of the Akensûhn mountain chain. Because of the perpetual mist that is the forest's main source of moisture, and because of its rather dangerous beasts and insects, the land is only inhabited by the Yarulma, a Drûg-related folk of wild hunters and gatherers. They know several safe passes through the Akensûhn to Waarwugan. The Akensûhn Mountains are home to a race of fierce orcs. Another reason to avoid this land is that Maaken is home to a fire drake, Nyxor, who uses orcs and human beings as his pets when he has the desire to do so, and simply eats them when he is hungry.
Mag is a warm, humid, and hilly coastal region situated in southwesternmost Endor. It lies south of the western part of the Yellow Mountains, northeast of Pel and southwest of Tumag. Most of its Apysaic-speaking inhabitants live near the Haragaer.
Mitheryn (S. "Grey Trees") is a vast taiga woodland, stretched between the Iron Mountains and the Forbesir river. It is inhabited by scattered Avari herders and hunters, who fled Urd when the Shadow of the Ice King rose in the Second Age. Suspicious and wary of any intrusion in their protected realm, the Mithrydhil are ruled by King Hisethar and Queen Elwathil, who consider themselves vassals to the King of Luindor.
Míak is the easternmost region on the Endorean mainland, and constitutes the eastern "Core-land" of Womawas Drus. It is often independent from the rest of the Empire, with its own distinctive customs and traditions.
Mûlambur is a collection of large islands located just off the southern coast of Middle-earth. Situated in the Haragaer - between the mouths of the Bay of Ûsakan and the smaller Bay of Koros - they are covered with low hills, lakes, and jungles. is a large, hilly land best known for its myriad rivers and jungles. Mûmakanin-speaking clans live throughout the area.
Mûmakan is a large, hilly land best known for its myriad rivers and jungles. It lies south of the Ered Laranor (Q. "Yellow Mountains") and north of the Haragaer, in southernmost Endor.
Located north and east of the Barl Syrnac, western branch of the Iron Mountains, Mur Fostisyr is a collection of rugged peninsulas. Covered with tundra (in the north) or taiga (in the south), they serve as the home for scattered bands of Labba-speaking nomads. These hunters and fishermen often range well out onto the adjoining Gulf of Ûtum.
Located south of the Great Forest of Urd, Myr is the northernmost plain in central Endor. It is populated by the Tyran-speaking Myri, a semi-nomadic people often subject to Urdar domination.
Located near the Sea of Winds, between Jamna and Sunum, Nejhen is a lowland plateau with hills, tropical forests and wooded marsh lands. Nejhen is the land of innumerable rivers, rivulets and streams, which is both a blessing and a curse. The rivers take their source from the Akensûhn mountains to the east, and from the foothills of the Jagged Ridge to the west. The most notable rivers are the Urbiad ("Foam River"), the Narûnen ("Blue Silver river"), the Jamûn, and the Meghna. The lands are fertile, and many farming and fishing villages are established along the rivers. But sea storms are frequent here, which cause frequent floods. The coastlands are mainly sandy and rocky beaches, interspersed with low cliffs.
The climate is sub-tropical with temperatures ranging between 18°C in the cold season to a maximum of 40°C in the summer. Annual rainfall ranges about 350 cm. The country has mainly four seasons, the Winter - the most pleasant season (Girithron- Nónui), Summer (Gwaeron-Lothron), Monsoon (Nírui-Urui) and Autumn (Ivanneth-Hithui).
These lands are populated by the Nejhî, closely related to the Chasrû of Jamna. Unlike their brothers, they were never able to establish a strong realm, being instead influenced by Jamna, Sakal an-Khâr, Folyani and Sunum, who alternatively during history dominate Nejhen. The most important cities are built along the coasts, usually on cliffs to avoid the effects of storms. These cities are inhabited by a mixture of the surrounding people in the Sea of Winds and in Ormal Bay. The cult of the Shadow took root in Nejhen fairly early in the Third Age, and Dwar of Waw had used their forces - primarily warships with slave rowers - on several occasions.
Nûrad is a somewhat rich, warm, hilly land located east of the northern tip of the Ered Harmal. Mordor and wide Khand Gap lie to the west. The Talathrant rises here. The Nen Nûrad is said to be the birthplace of the great river.
Given its wealth of freshwater and exceptionally strategic location, Nûrad is considered a prized territory. Its fierce, Nûradja-speaking residents are constantly threatened and often find themselves under the yoke of the brutal Variags or their more numerous Chey neighbors.
Nurn, the "Sad Land," constitutes all of southern and eastern Mordor. A semi-arid plateau, it serves as the breadbasket of Sauron's wicked kingdom. Its numerous Hildo inhabitants, most of whom are enslaved, include the Mordorin- and Nûradja-speaking tribesmen indigenous to the Nurn Basin.
The blessed and hidden realm of Ôm is located among the tall peaks at the eastern end of the Iron Mountains. Its deep, cold but green valleys are warmed by the light of the Sikiëkulvi, a gem created by Yavanna as a gift to those Men who helped to fight the Shadow Flame in the First Age. The Ôma, a Mornerin-speaking, dwindling race built huge stone palaces from the mountains sides, and work metals, following the teachings of their traditional friends, the Dwarves of Murthûnin.
Orgothraath is an Aharin nation sprawled along the northern flanks of the Tem Tinicliat (Ahar. "Stallion's Mane Mountains,") known to the west as the central ranges of the Ered Harmal. Away from the mountains, most of Orgothraath is high grassland and the home of tough, proud Vexclars Ahar herdsmen. Nearer the mountains, and in the river valleys of the Talathrant and its tributaries, the land is wooded and thickly settled wherever good water can be found. A number of well fortified trading cities mark the best river crossings and the approaches to the mountain passes. They are often the seats of independent kings, when some larger empire is not ruling the High Plains. The upper portion of the Chey Rill forms Orgothraath's western boundary. This country, potentially the richest in central Endor, has been the scene of countless wars between the Chey and the Ahar over the centuries. For every flourishing village or town here, there can be found a half dozen ruins or rubble piles marking famous victories and infamous massacres.
Ornad, the land of the green hills, is located east of Sîrayn and south of Harshandatt. It has a rather dry climate, with average precipitations. Its gently rolling lands rise slowly from the sea to the inland, at an average elevation of 10 to 50 m. Only the narrow and fertile strip of land near the sea can be used for farming. Away from this strip of land, one enters into the Kirmlesra hills, which are desolate lands. The Sîranians never built in Ornad important cities, only farming villages. The only important city is Jodiar (or Tûl Jodia), located in the southern part of the land. The defense is ensured by a line of seven great towers, built during the middle of the Second Age (though Ornad was rarely invaded). There are two important roads: the Yíl Harshandat (which connects Sîrayn with Harshandatt) and the Yíl Odha.
Pel is located south of the western part of the Yellow Mountains - east of Drel-in southwesternmost Endor. Like Drel, Pel is located near the great cape called Metharn (Hyarnúmente). The Haragaer forms its southern boundary. A warm, humid land, it contains the forests of Tathom and Taur Galen. The region is named for the four Apysan tribes that occupy the area.
Ralian, the great "Lake-lands" of southeastern Endor stretch east and south from the rolling highlands between the Orocarni and the Orosúli. A variety of reddish-brown-skinned, Ralek-speaking peoples occupy this rich, hilly region. The great river Loralian rises in its northern highlands.
Cabe is the oldest and wealthiest of Ralian's five tribal realms. It is bounded by the Loralian in the west and the river Kankanan in the east and south. It extends as far north as the upper shores of Clocaban, a lake on the river known as Locaban. Cabe shares its name with its chief city, which is in turn named for the Tife Cabian people. Able and sophisticated farmers, they raise wheat, rye, greens, and tubors. Fish comprise the bulk of their meat intake.
The city of Cabe is situated on a grassy hill in the southwestern part of the Tife Cabian claim. Walled with five beautifully-carved palisades built out of laquered ironwood, it is a compact and imposing settlement. Its corduroy streets and multi-leveled bridges connect a broad array of large wooden structures, many of which have survived over two millenia.
Kankanan, the tribal center of the Tife Kankanian folk, lies only forty-miles southwest of Cabe. Situated on the river Kankanan and connected to the Loralian by a broad canal, it is a major river port. It is center of trade and commercial fishing.
Ralian's other three tribes include the Tife Lenian, the Rale Cuvian, and the Rale Bursian. Tife Lenian lands lie in the far south, below the Clolene, and adjoin Horl lands. Rale Cuivian territory stretches north and east from Clocaban, as far as the shores of the Romenëar. It is the largest of Ralian's five realms. The next largest, the Rale Bursian claim, is in the north and northwest.
Known as the Land of Swirling Waters, birthplace of Ringlin Sindacollo, Ralian often acted as a buffer between invading nomads from the north and the settled lands of the Lochan Empire. Ralian disappears after the 20th-century TA.
Relmether lies along the northern flank of the west-central Talathrant Valley. The Talathrant meets the Chey Rill at the eastern edge of the region. Relmether's gently rolling hills and woods offer shelter from the region's harsh winds. A relatively prosperous mix of Aharin- and Ioradja-speaking peoples reside here, farming, herding, and trading astride Middle-earth's principal east-west trade route. About half of Relmether's people live by the lake known as Linenether, a portion of the river Talathrant, which lies in southern Relmether. Dammed by a natural rock ridge, the Linenether is a rich source of food and freshwater. A waterfall called the Belanthir (S. "Mighty Waterfall") lies at the eastern end of the thirty mile mere. Here, the lake's water tumbles some six hundred feet over the escarpment before resuming its seaward journey. Relerindú, Relmether's chief town, lies just above the Belanthir. Its famous Mill-bridge spans the cataract. Well-fortified, the bridge supports thirty distinct grain- and lumber-mills.
Rhûn (S. "East") is a vast region of nearly 500,000 square miles. Most of it is open territory covered grasslands of varying quality. Western Rhûn is dominated by the mountains, rolling hills, and river vales near the Inland Sea of Rhûn (S. "Nen Rhúnen"). Numerous rivers-including (clockwise from the northwest) the Celduin, Kug, Sûrûbeki, and Warwater-feed this great mere, which is largest body of water in all of Middle-earth. The Taur Rímen (S. "Eastern Forest") covers the entire Kug Valley. Nearly two hundred miles across, it stretches over a hundred miles northeast of the Nen Rhúnen. Rhûn is home to myriad peoples. Ulgathic-speaking tribes typically occupy over half the area, including the eastern and central reaches. Ioradja-speakers usually dominate the southern steppe-lands. A mix of groups, of which the Dorwinrim are predominate, live along the northern and western shores of the Inland Sea.
Rôlfandas is a collection of islands located off the coast of northeastern Middle-earth, at the junction of the Romenëar and Helkëar. The Weer Womaw (Wm. "Womaw Gulf") lies to the south. The 500 hundred mile long archipelago is actually an isolated section of what was once the northern Orocarni. Tall, red peaks still rise from the center of Vor Rôlfandas, the chain's main island. The northernmost home of Womarin-speaking peoples, Rôlfandas has long been occupied; however, few folk live on any of the smaller isles. The vast majority of the areas hunters, trappers, and fishermen reside by the sheltered eastern shores of Vor Rôlfandas. Rôlaalk-the center of the Rôl and Obaar clans of the Ruulurk tribe-is the region's chief city and traditional capital.
Rúbor is located to the northwest of Helcarth and west of the northern Orocarni, at the extreme northeastern edge of Endor's broad East-plain. The Illuin Wood stretches to the north. Deciduous forest and hills separate the high, cold grassland, from the rich Nan Kalmasîr (Q. "Lamp-river Valley") to the east. Mornerin herders, trappers, and hunters, the Rúbor are a tough, stout people. They live a semi-nomadic life for a little over half the year, and retreat to permanent camps during the long northern winter. Despite the bitter cold, though, Rúbor bands hunt, trap, and fish nearly every day of the year.
Ruuriik is a sheltered and heavily-wooded Dwarf-kingdom tucked into the northeastern flank of the Orosúli (Q. "Mountains of the Wind"). Mountains encircle it on three sides, while the Romenëar forms its eastern boundary.
Rycolis is in the northeastern part of the central Talathrant basin. A cool area characterized by lush grasslands and a large, mixed wood forest, it was occupied by Aharin speaking farmers. By the Third Age a kingdom is found at the crossroads between east and west, ruled since the days of Ren's Chey empire by a Satrap, who chants a royal hymn before all state occasions. Rycolis was heavily dominated by Haradrim and Sîranean thought, culture and architecture from the mid-Third Age. The Satrap was originally named by Ren, but is normally hereditary; only when a particular Satrap begins acting too independently is another line chosen. Rycolis is a trading center, facilitating commerce between the various realms dominated by the Nazgûl in central and eastern Endor (and sometimes with Dorwinon and the West beyond). It was famous for its healers, among the best in the world; they once healed a Satrap of an arrow wound to the throat, and he suffered no permanent damage.
Originally populated by the Monam and the Tarlai, Sakal an-Khâr was conquered in the mid Second Age by the Númeníreans, and they establish there a powerful colony. This was an important center of power that would later been known as New Númenor, as the inhabitants, truly Black Númeníreans in nature, consider themselves as the true heirs of Númenor. They try (and succeed several times) to dominate the entirety of Ormal Bay, and even the lands as far east as Sunum and Jojojopo.
They even gave new Númenor names for some of their cities, mountains or rivers (the most important and symbolic change is Mount Meneltarma, near Khârutârik, and Alkarrânda in Zurghôr). Khârutârik, at the mouth of river Artarâ (Nunduinë), and Tarik an-Aruwânâi are the most important cities, the last being the capital of the Empire.
The lands are geographically and culturally complex. One aspect of this is the successive migrations and invasions throughout the first and second ages (subsequent migrations of Monam, Tarlai, and Sakal an-Khanîm peoples). In its majority, Sakal an-Khâr is a savanna, although there are three other significant geographical features.
The Barren Hills are located to the north and east, between the Rivers Artarâ and Esmandûr (renamed by the authorities of Sakal an-Khâr as Siril). The climate here is dry and hot, in opposition to the adjacent Zurghôr lands.
The coastal plains alternate between swamp and forest, and contain many short and swift torrents hurrying to the sea. For the most part, Sakal an-Khâr is covered by sandy beaches and coastal rugged hills, short grass, and is quite similar to the Codya coasts. There is also forests and scattered trees. These lands are sometimes referred as Hyarnustar (Southwestlands), as the peninsula looks quite similar to Númenor's Hyarnustar.
In the west of Sakal an-Khar near Vulm Shryac are volcanic islands, which can also be found in the extreme east of the Empire in the Bay of Coral Reefs.
A cool coastal area, Sharthax is situated on the northern side of a peninsula that extends eastward into the Sea of Thilluin. Uul lies to the south. Mornerin-speaking Shartha tribesman make their living off of the ocean.
Shay lies east of the Shay Bight and west of the Orosúlo (Q. "Mountains of the Wind"), on southeastern coast of Endor. It is home of a large population of Shayan-speaking farmers; the Shay were originally from Lurs Vorganis and Rûbor, settling the area in the Second Age, while many of their kindred stayed in the north.
Sunum is a mountainous realm located on the gulf of Sunum in southeastern Endor. It is bordered by Jojojopo to the northeast, Nejhen and Jamna to the west, and by the island of Cimoniemor to the south. The Akensûhn Mountains ("The Broken Hills"), whose peaks are snowcapped nearly year-round, form its northern boundary with Jojojopo. There are several passes to Jojojopo, though few of them are safe. The most notable peak is Mount Khorak (7450 meters), which is considered sacred by the Licchavi (a people distantly related to the Tarlai) and to the Cha-t'o, a yellow-skinned population forcibly relocated here by the Vulmaw in the mid Second Age. The Cha-t'o later rebelled, and formed a realm of their own during Third.
The climate is of monsoon type, relatively dry, cool winter from Girithron to Ninui, dry hot summer from Gwaeron to Lothron, the northwest monsoon brings dry weather from Norui to Urui, and the southeast monsoon brings the wet season (maritime winds and precipitations) from Ivaneth to Hithui.
The main geographical feature of Sunum is the forested and fertile plateau of Jelay, which contains a number of important villages and cities. From the foothills of the Akensûhn mountains, several important rivers lay their course to the sea. They are, from west to east, the Songkhla ("Foam River"), the Sawan ("Yellow river") and the Kao Phraya, named in honor of the most powerful potentate of Sunum. There are as well seven great lakes which are interconnected by subterranean rivers.
The coastlands are sandy and rocky to the east, and in the gulf of Sunum, there are rather tall black cliffs rising hundreds of feet above the sea, as in Jamna. To the east is the jungle of Maena, populated by jungle orcs and by some ferocious monsters. Nothing is clearly known about this jungle, and the legend about lost and destroyed strongholds of the Elves may be true.
The Licchavi, upon their arrival in Sunum in the early years of First Age, had a pastoralist culture: their life was based on herding and hunting, and they were rather peaceful and secretive. Settlements were built near the lakes or in the forests. Vul Dral, a Surk Vulmaw warrior, conquered (in SA 680) the territories of Sunum and Jojojopo, establishing there the first Vulmaw colony, from which Vulmaw would start to explore the Sea of Winds, the Bay of Coral Reefs and the Bay of Ormal.
Most of the large cities are built along the coasts. The most famous are Yulcaavi, the Jewel City, and Suhn, at the mouth of Suhnji river. The interests of the colony lie mainly in the mountains, since silver mines have been sunk near Mount Khorak. A snow-capped mountain below two stars on a black field serves as the symbol of Sunum.
A realm of Silvan, Sindarin and Noldor Elves, Taaliraan is the only truly Elven land in the area since the total destruction of Dirsulinor. In fact, many refugees from that land now live in Taaliraan, the rest abandoning Middle-earth entirely for the Undying Lands in the West. Ruled as it has been since its founding in the First Age by the Lord Eldanar, a Noldorin Prince in Exile, Taaliraan is a self-contained country, remaining aloof from local politics. It is here that the majority of the users of essence can be found, no doubt one of the major reasons that Taaliraan has not been threatened by Tantûrak, or any other realm for that matter.
Tana is a mountain realm situated near the southeastern shores of Endor. The Orosúlo (Q. "Mountains of the Wind") rise to the west, and slowly fall into foothills to the east and in deep vales that reach the sea, while the rivers Kirmías, Usulo serve as the area's southern and northern boundaries.
The Tânim have a semi-nomadic culture, based on herding and hunting. Settlements are often built on highly defensible spots, such as a cliff, a steep hill or a mountain-side, to defend against invaders. Few Tânim live on the rocky seashore, due to the threat of pirates and raiders. They distrust the ways of sea-faring peoples, and the landscape prevents the building of but a few harbours. However, the sea grants this land a mild climate, thanks to favourable winds which blow during spring and summer.
It is only with the Lochan arrival that some few cities, including Yelshey, the Red City, are built. Yelshey became famous throughout this region, and even as far away as Ormal Bay, because of unique red crystals that can be found in the sand of the beaches here. These are sold at high price to the nobles of the Lochan Empire.
Built upon a high cliff, Yelshey is the capital of Tana, and is considered by the Tânim as a spiritual and military center - as the first the meeting place between deities who live on the mountains and those who live on the sea, and as birthplace of Zojaw the Hunter God. The Tânim mostly honor the Gods of Nature, Anât and Zojaw (by three sacred mountains and pilgrimage routes), but make also a tribute to Ezan, the Sea God.
A red gem in the green forest serves as the Tânim symbol. The Tânim are very good mercenaries very often used for tactical operation in the mountains. They never tried to increase their territory, but they are capable to defend it until death, even against Argaw or Brodîm.
A Númenírean colony founded in c. S.A. 1300, Tantûrak was the most southerly of the Númenírean settlements on the Middle-earth continent proper, and was relatively cut off from the more northerly realms, with the exception of some trading contacts. From the beginning, the people of Tantûrak chose to be a separate entity from the other, more loosely governed areas of the Mumakan. Dominating the northeast corner of the Usakan bay, Tantûrak is flanked by rolling hills on both sides and mountains to the north, providing natural defensive barriers. The western portion of the country, the least heavily settled, is covered by a mixed deciduous/coniferous forest, extending virtually unbroken for miles. The southeast section, receiving more warm, humid air from the bay winds, is blanketed by a lush rainforest which dominates the entire Koros peninsula. Of all the peoples of the Mumakan area, the Tantûraki chose the most ambitious (and insensitive) method of dealing with the jungle: they burned and cleared large areas within the rainforest and along the coast, and there established their settlements.
The capitol city of Tantûrak is Sarûl, which lies on the eastern side of the mouth of the Uvar river. Based here is the formidable navy of Tantûrak, for these people took with them many of the skills of their Númenírean ancestors. Of the government of the realm, there is a story of an interesting, if perhaps predictable transformation. At the first there was, as is true of most of the colonies, a royal governor, who at least in theory answered to the King in Númenor. This system worked quite well for some seven hundred years, the governorship turning over eleven times until, in c. S.A. 3000, the "Magician" arrived in Tantûrak. The date is uncertain for he came with little fanfare and rose quietly, albeit swiftly, through the ranks of the governor's advisors. This particular governor, a cousin of the king, was particularly susceptible to the silky corrupting words of the the Magician, as his lust for power and glory was great. Soon the Magician was his chief advisor, and in S.A. 2040, the governor declared himself King of Tantûrak, taking the name Tar-Kinjaarn, and severed all political ties with Númenor. This move was greeted with great enthusiasm by the populace, as the taxes imposed by the mother country had inflated greatly over the last few decades.
Since that time it has been a steady decline into corruption for the government, and a subtle, yet definite shift in attitude by the Tantûraki towards the native Elven and Kirani populations, from disdain to outward hatred and jealousy, for the lifespans of the Tantûraki population began to lessen, even as did those of the people of Númenor. This racial hatred resulted in the declaration of war, without provocation, by the king of Tantûrak against the Koronande Republic. The outcome was inconclusive, but only served to intensify the loathing by the Men of the West, and cause new apprehension among the Elves and Kirani about the safety of their position.
An Elven kingdom founded in SA 2060, by Avari fleeing the fall of Luindor to the Ice King, Tharsitaur (S. "Forest beyond the river") lies to the north of Rùbor, along the Calsir river. A pleasant land of brooks and trees, it is a haven for many Elven scholars and artisans who fled the Shadow in the North.
Thûlornar (Av "Wind Forest") is a vast forest, situated to the west of Vothrig, to the east of U-Lyshak, and to the north of the coasts of the Sea of Storms, named because of its frequent storms and the frequency of the pirates attacking Númenírean, Ulshyans or Womaw trade ships. It is inhabited by the Hwendi, Tatyarin Avarin herders and hunters, who settled there under the light of the Stars. They fight against all who want to enter uninvited in their forest, except when humans have peaceful intentions (just like the Ulshyans). Other than that, they are hostiles to Orcs and Evil Men.
The largest island off the coast of Middle-earth, Thuriac Codya is the ancient home of the Surk Womaw.
Encompassing all of the oval shaped rainforest area to the east of Geshaan, Tuktan is an interconnected web of Kirani villages, loosely knit and united by a very informal central government consisting of a council of seventeen Jilhani (village leaders). The Jilhan council meets semi-annually, or if a threat to the realm as a whole warrants it. Otherwise each Jilhan rules his town as he sees fit, and all engage in a lively trade amongst themselves and with adjacent Koronandë. It is in the Tuktan forest alone that the Jeedic Teak trees flourish, and their wood is prized. Not surprisingly, Tuktan wood craftsmen are very skilled and their furniture and bows are highly sought after. Tuktan composite bows can bring a price many times the average, and are said to be superior to any other, save the most powerful magical bows.
Of late (T.A. 1700) Tuktan has had increasing problems with the Mumakan people who, beginning to envy the fine homes and land of the Tuktani, are ever more antagonistic, raiding on the bordering villages with increasing frequency.
Tulwang is situated on a peninsula in southwestern Endor. It lies between the Belegaer and the Ered Laranor. The Gulf of Harad lies to the north, while the valley of the river Balakurush (Ad "Wood River") and its affluent river Akurush lies to the south. Tulwang is comprised of two dissimilar areas : firstly, the Né-Tava, a relatively semi-arid land which extends as far as the Bay of Raishoul, and the Tulwany coast along the Ajdak valley. While the Ajdak valley and the coastlands are the only reasonably fertile zones in all this country, the Né-Tava extends over many square miles.
The most important cities are Khorsâj and Norjadar, as one who control these cities can have access to all Tulwang. Central Tulwang is inhabited by the Farijin, a nomad people, also called later as the Gettaniyan tribesmen. The Etulians came to dominate their cousins in Tulwang as well, with the founding of the Ryst line in Norjadar by the beginning of Second Age, as well as in the Northern Tulwang, near the bay of Raishoul. Sorijans raiders are related to these people, as well as with the Bellakaze and the Tedjin of Bellakar. Tulwang is greatly influenced by Bellakar and Anbalukkhôr, from time to time independant and conquered.
Situated south of the western part of the Yellow Mountains,Tumag is a warm, humid, and hilly coastal region situated in southwesternmost Endor. It lies west of the Bay of Ûsakan. Most of its Apysaic-speaking inhabitants live near the hills above the area's numerous rivers, lakes, or along the Haragaer coast. Jungle covers much of Tumag, especially in the east.
Uab is located north of the eastern branch of the Iron Mountains. Like Avikangsdar to the west and Uax to the east, it is an utterly desolate coastal region. The bitter winds off the Helechaer insure that it remains home to virtually no one save a few scattered bands of Umli hunters and Snow-Orcs.
Like Uab to the west, Uax is situated north of the eastern branch of the Iron Mountains. It occupies the northern half of the frigid peninsula that forms the upper shores of the Sea of Thilluin. Ice-Trolls, Onow-Orcs, and scattered bands of Umli hunters roam the area, following the migrations of the reindeer and the wild gusgi (yak-like creatures). The mountains to the south are inhabited by Mountain-Orcs and dwarves of Drùhar's Folk, whose largest settlement is Murthûnin (Kh. "Northern Haven").
Ubain is situated along the southwestern flank of the Orocarni (Q. "Red Mountains"). It is home to Linerin-speaking farmers and herders. Many live in the highly defensible "Butte-lands" on the central Ubain Plain.
Uiven is a collection of six (and numerous lesser) large islands located in the Romenëar. They stretch about four hundred miles north and two hundred miles east of Míak, the easternmost point on the Endorean mainland. They guard the eastern channels into the Womaw Sea. Womarin-speaking fishermen reside throughout the cold, windy area.
U-Lyshak is an important glacial mountain island (about 6000 meters high) in the extreme north of Middle Earth. On the coasts live Mornerin peoples and in the mountains dwell Orcs. Ice storms are very frequent in the mountains. This realm is the most feared of all in the Bay of Illuin, as it is there that Fankil, the Herald of Melkor, (also called Telear, Lord of Glory, and by his foes the Seducer), a fallen Maia, built a secret stronghold, called Gulkaju. Fankil feels a strong hate towards Mùar the Shadow Flame, and because of his efforts against his rival, Fankil has not been able to build a great empire. During the tenth century of Second Age, Fankil placed a human king in command of the realm, so that he might further concentrate on fighting Muar.
Lying east of the Iron Mountains and on the border of the Sea of the Havens, Ulshy is a wide land bordered on the west by the river Talathrant, on the east by the Tem-Eskam chain, and on the north by the Sea of Havens. The Sea of Havens is so named because of the numerous settlements on that sea, both in Ulshy, Vothrig and Úrcheldor.
The Ulshyans, like their Chyans cousins, were at first a steppe people led by Uvaxhstra, the "Father of Unity". who settled there during the early years of First Age. The Ulshyans are fierce enemies of evil men living in U-Lyshak. They are friendly with the Hwendi, a Tatyarin Avari tribe living in the forests of Thûrlornar.
Ulshy's landscapes are varied, but can be roughly divided into three different areas. The coastlands are a flat and fertile land, is the only land suitable for the agriculture, consisting of cereals, potatoes and tomatoes. The area is rich in fish and game, and it is here that dwell in great majority the Ulshyan people. It is here that the Ulshyan built their most important cities, Pûrepûrla (the capital), Caladost (at the mouth of river Rusek), the fortress city of Khurmand near the hills of Dalpygis and Banadar, the Vothrig outpost. There are several important rivers here that flow from the Tem-Eskam Mountains, including the river Rusek.
Banadar enjoys a special status. Awarded as a concession by the Ulshyan King in the Mid Second Age to a Vothrig prince, Banadar is located on the lower Talathrant. The city grew quickly into one of the largest cities of the Bay: ruled by a Vothrig Prince, though vassal of Ulshy, the city's markets collected goods from all around the bay, the East, central Endor and the Talathrant Valley, and Númenor. The Kings of Banadar played the diplomats wisely, so that they obtained independence in 2021, by supporting the Númeníreans against the Ulshy. They hosted a Númenírean garrison, who helped them defending against the ever-greedy Ioriag and Ulgath nomads.
The hills are the wildest part of Ulshy. Most are rocky (with granite) and covered by musk and lichens, but in the valleys, grow thick evergreen forests. There are some Ulshyans villages there. To the North, near the mountains, there is a vast and wild taiga forest that the Ulshyans avoid, as it is surrounded by swampy wetlands.
Unvirnay lies in southeastern Middle-earth. A rich plain of tall grasses covers most of the area, which is situated east of the Shay Bight, west of the Orosúlo, and north of Shay. Like Shay, its western reaches are well-forested. It is also the home of a Shayan-speaking people; however, the Unvirnay are more given to herding, logging, and trading than they are to farming.
This land is composed of mid-mountain plains and coniferous forests. This is Ûrakhan, a rather rugged country bordered by two mountains chains, Tem Dazran and Ûl Buzdaz, also known by its Ûrakhan inhabitants as the "Angle Land", between the Rivers Niss and Taîsh.
The Ûrakhan are distant relatives of the Womaw, as they once lived in Karn Ord and in Aegan. They were like other Womarin tribes governed by a Hion who in turn swore fealty to the Hionvar in Gíak. All of this changed when the Womaw Empire began to dissolve under Múl Hionvar Komúl I, who ascended to the throne in 1844. Under the twin pressures of Númenírean invasion and Lochan encroachments and rebellion, Komúl began a brutal series of repressions against various indigenous tribes, freely supported by the Hion of Dawurk tribe (the leading and most important tribe of Aegan). During the annual midwinter's moot of 1956, the Dawurk's Hion fully became the new Hionvul, despite the fierce opposition of many leaders of Arxurk and Ornurk tribes. This unleashed the Four Shrines Hionvul war, with the Ornurk, Arxurk and Kanurk (Karn Ord) tribes opposing the Uonurk and Dawurk tribes. This war unfortunately ended in a great victory for the Dawurk, which made them the leading tribe of Aegan for more than two centuries. Despite the defeat, many among the Arxurk were not ready to accept the Dawurk domination of Aegan. They decided to flee the Empire, leaving behind forever the Bay of Swirling Waters. They were followed by some members of the Ornurk tribe, nearly all the Kanurk tribe, as well as by the first inhabitants of Ubain the Dakhâw and the Hulkhâw, who were also dissatisfied by Womaw repressions. They arrived in Ormal Bay from the northeast prior to 1995 SA, well before the so-called "Ghost Kingdoms" period of Womaw history, an era of dissolution and civil strife prompted by Komúl's disappearance and increasing Númenírean influence.
They are not great architects like the Idurâk or the Lynerian. Their cities are not sophisticated, but functional for defense and life. They easily subjugated at their arrival peaceful farmers and hunters living there, akin to the Senûr and the Verikis people, who deeply suffered from deadly assaults of the Dilikhran tribes. The capital Sulyann is the only city to have a high wall, for that the city is at the crossing of two important roads, the first following the river Niss, the second from the Treddas Mountains to the steppes of Dhath. The other cities are really nothing more than large villages.
The island of Úrcheldor (S. "Land of Fire and Ice", Qu. "Úrheldòrë") is located in the North of Middle Earth, on the borders of the Sea of Solitude, the Sea of Havens and the Sea of Storms. Despite its location in the extreme North, Úrcheldor is a temperate island. What happened there is only known by the Hwendi Elves of Thûlornar and by the Eldar of the West. The Númeníreans assumed that is was probably there that the Illuin lamp fell, but they had no certitude of it, as there were tales about the roots of this fallen lamp in Urtlagga to the east too. Only the Eldar and the Hwendi Elves of Thûlornar know the truth.
The fall of Illuin lamp opened a wide Sea in the North, just like the fall of Ormal in the South, drowning a part of the mountains. By chance and favorable geography, the territories around Morgoth's fortress, Utumno, was left mainly untouched by the cataclysm, but separated from the main continent, thus enhancing the defences of the fortress. The very mountains of this land broke and shook, erupting fire and death, and covering the new island of Utumno in thick mists, to hide it from the vengeance of Tulkas. It was later that the Valar found it at last, destroyed it to the ground, and left a bleak and flat plain where once stood the mighty fortress.
The island in itself is bigger than Númenor. The coasts are sharp and rocky cliffs, except in some few areas, like the mouths of rivers. There are four different mountain chains, from which take source dozens of rivers, the longest being the Ezrand, in eastern Úrcheldor, and the Ulut, in northwestern Úrcheldor. There are several forests, and several lakes, including the greatest, lake Ovadûl, near the mountains and near the Umli and Dwarves settlement.
The island is split into several realms, which change during the course of history, but basically the most important are Hithlond (a faithful colony of Númenor in southwestern Úrcheldor, with its two most important cities, Lond Elerion and Hithlond), Erezwand (a Vothrig realm in southeastern Úrcheldor), Oerja (Womaw outposts in the sea of storms coast), Mornerin evil realms. Orcs are present beneath the mountains to the north, Umli and Dwarves in the mountains of the northwestern Úrcheldor. Here are detailed the most important realms :
Ierkhab and Kiebûk ("Mountain Island") : these are Mornerin realms, located in the north and in the Sea of Storms coasts. Their cities are usually a refuge for pirats. The Mornerin populations, like their ancestors who fled the Ulshyan wrath at the end of First Age to the island, are an easy prey for the Shadow, and to Fankil who coordinates all the Shadow plans against the free people. Fortunately, these realms are rarely united, but represent nonetheless a danger for trade or military affairs for both the Númeníreans, the Vothrig and the Ulshyans. One of their rulers was the high priestess Rasedâkh, bearer of a Ring of Binding (which links a spirit to a body); who would rule his people for more than a millenia and who would be responsible for Hithlond's fall at the end of Second Age.
Oerja : several trade outposts are built by mid-Second Age (Nenjen, Loaj-Kién) which are later fortified. This is indeed a Womaw colony, but in fact the great majority of the population are of Mornerin stock. Only the elite is Womaw. This lead by the end of Second Age first to the fall of Oerja under the attacks of Rasedâkh of Ierkhab and Raseral of Desdursyton, and next to the creation in early Third Age of a Womaw/Vothrig realm.
Erezwand : one of the most important Vothrig realms in Úrcheldor created during the mid Second Age by the fusion of Vothrig city states. The other important Vothrig realms are Rayomand (on the mouth of river Nekadarja), Shiyras in Elthrakh, and Banadar the city state in Ulshy. All of these realms are rivals; fighting each other for commercial and political power.
Hithlond : Founded in mid Second Age after several exploration of the Bay (including Soronto's expedition in Ormal and Illuin Bays), Hisilondë in southwestern Middle Earth is a Faithful colony. Their rulers try to keep peace in the bay, and when it is not successful, then turned to a 'divide and rule' policy, to better keep in check Vothrig and Ulshy power in the Bay. Unfortunately, Ar-Zimrathôn, in need of troops to send to Tantûrak, orders a heavy withdrawal of forces from the Faithful colonies of Illuin. Hithlond falls some decades later to the conjoint forces of Rasedâkh and Razeral, and is liberated some decades later. The refoundation of Hithlond happens at the beginning of Third Age, but in coexistence with several Black Númenírean realms.
Urd lies in the Far North of Endor, along the southern edges of the Iron Mountains. A extremely cold and rocky land, it is inhabited by Udarin-speaking Men called the Urdar. Scattered bands of Umli live in the higher reaches along its northern and eastern flanks.
Most Urdar live in or beside the forests of Dór, Shasir or the Great Forest, a great taiga woodland in southern Urd. They hunt and trap throughout the area, spending their winters in well-insulated clan centers by the great river called the Urgûk. Their most famous son, Hoarmûrath of Dór, broke the rule of the Urd Priestesses and, with the help of the Avari, became the First King of Urd. When his relation with the Luindrim bittered, he accepted a Ring of power from Sauron, thus becoming a Ringwraith. In the following years, the Urdar submitted all the Far North, creating an Empire who was to last until the end of the Age.
The cruel Urdar are reviled by all peoples in Northeastern Middle-earth.
Urtlagga is a collection of cold and desolate islands located in the middle of the Sea of Thilluin. Legends speak of the numerous caves that dot the volcanic isles, and a number of tales refer to the caverns as the "lost Roots of the Lamp of the North."
Ûsakan is a hilly and heavily-wooded land situated south of the Ered Laranor (Q. "Yellow Mountains") and north of the bay of the same name. Its Kiranaic-speaking inhabitants venture well out into the Haragaer.
Ûster Kryl is an oasis of trees and hills in the vast grass sea known as the East-plain of Endor. It is occupied by sedentary, Linerin-speaking dairymen and farmers called the Ûsteri. Their famous 650 mile long "Rope-wall" is a marvel of engineering. A 6 foot high fence made of laquered wood and well-oiled hemp, it resists both fire and rot. It encircles the entire area. In the mid-Third Age, the Wizard Alatar founded a kingdom in the forest called Luinemar ("The Place of the Blue One"), which included sovereignty over Daldunair as well.. It was known as the Round Western Forest.
A vast vale comprising the remnant of a collapsed volcano, Uul is surrounded by hills and taiga forests. Once settled by Dwarves of Drùhar's Folk, it is now the domain of the Cold Drake Lamthanc, and his awful offspring who terrorize the regions' woods. Uul lies west of the Sea of Illuin.
Located east of the Chy Gap, a broad pass in the Ered Harmal, Vaag is a somewhat dry, hilly area occupied by Chyan-speaking herders and traders.
Vothrig lies in the borders of both the Sea of Havens and the Sea of Storms, in Northern Middle Earth. The lands are inhabited by the Vothrig, a Tyran people, who arrived in the Bay on the fifth century of Second Age. They settled near the sea, and droven back the early Mornerin inhabitants to the West and to the East. They are gifted mariners. They are ruled by a hereditary King (or the Ulfar in Vothrig language), and they have a long tradition for war. They worship a great number of Gods and spirits amongst whom the heads are Ojhrig (the father of gods, the master of knowledge and war), Rehj (the eldest son of Ojhrig, and the God of Courage and War), Aldoja and Nomath (Gods of Justice and Duality), Freya (Goddess of Love, beautiful harvests and fertile grounds, more or less the attributes of Yavanna), as well as Dedja (God of the Sea). They despise Djolkî, the God of Treason and Fear, and for all the Vothrig, this God does not have the honor to belong to the family of Gods.
The coastlands in the Sea of Storms are rather sharped cliffs, while in the Sea of Havens, there is a more frequent alternance between rocky beaches and high cliffs. The most important cities, like Rayomand (on the mouth of river Nekadarja) or Cojen, are located in the Sea of Havens coastlands, as it is easier to defend these cities against pirats, and to land ships on the sea.
There are several important rivers that take source in the nearby hills, in the deep valleys of Nekakhtar (Vo "Mineral Treasures"). Despite several fierce battles had happened there (including the battle against Fankil's armies at the end of First Age), Nekakhtar looks like a peaceful land, which is famous for its mineral resources (copper, sandstone, silver) and its medicinal plants. There are several important Vothrig villages on the hills and on the foothills of the Tem-Eskam chain.
Elthrakh (Ky "The Land of the Blue Light) is a vast taiga woodland that stretches among hills and mountains. It is home to another Tyran people, the Ky'taari, an ancient people who arrived on the bay during the seventh century of Second Age. The Ky'taari became a woodland and reclusive people, letting enemies pass as long as they didn't attack their villages, and ambushing them when they got too near. The city port of Shiyras is an independant Vothrig city state.
Originally settled by the Ts'dan (Ts. "Water's People") in the fourth century of the Second Age, the five, mountainous islands of V'Shrang lie off the coast of eastern Middle-earth. They guard a rocky but strategic channel in the Romenëar. Here, east of the southeastern part of Ruuriik, the Orosúlo rise straight from the sea.
V'Shrang is ruled by a female Ollm (Ts. "Mother") and administered by a male O'lan (Ts. "Counsel"). The O'lan is usually the Ollm's, uncle, brother, or son. He serves as the warlord of a fierce, martial society. Ts'dan shipwrights are famous for their T'illa (Ts. "Water-travelers"), the great warships that once dominated the west-central Romenëar. T'illa-borne raiders conquered Ka'ish in S.A. 323-48. These invaders reflected V'Shrang's traditional military triad, and included the Ra'thorfa, the G'ekka, and the Ts'balla. The elite, all-female Ra'thorfa (Ts. "Running Fangs") serve as a mounted shock force. They ride large, grey panthers called F'anna (Ts. "Ghost-panthers"), which are peculiar to V'Shrang and are undoubtedly the most noble of the big cats of eastern Endor. Organized in packs of five, the well-trained Ra'thorfan riders carry flails and a variety of lighter weapons. They comprise a formidable and highly mobile scouting and raiding force, especially under nocturnal or arboreal conditions.
The all-male G'ekka, or "Long-ears," are lightly-armed Ts'dan bowmen. They carry elaborately-carved composite bows. Like the Ra'thorfa, they are organized in units of five warriors called Y'wofu. Five Y'wofu form an Y'wekka, which is the traditional foundation of any Ts'dan force. Most of V'Shrang's warriors serve as part of the Ts'balla (Ts. "Ts'dan Mustering"). A primarily-male mixture, this grouping of lightly-trained and irregularly-armed infantry includes all of the unmarried Ts'dan maidens and all of the youthful Ts'dan men. While spirited, they are somewhat undependable when it comes to a pitched melee.
Vulm Shryac is the easternmost isle in Endor's great Southern Archipelago. It was inhabited by the Vulmaw-descendants of the Surk Womaw who first settled the area after SA 923. Womul of Míak conquered the local Wose tribes (the Shrûl people, perhaps some relatives of Chailla) on behalf of the Hion Jaariis. His elite Vrak Taanuk (Wm. "Coast Runners"), comprised the first Vulmaw aristocracy, and their kinsmen still hold sway throughout the region. Strangely, though, four sites-the most famous being the Shrine-forges at Leag Oac-remain sacrosanct and uninhabited; they may be mere imitations of the Womaw sacred-shrines.
Waarwugan (Ib. "Forest of the South") is a large warm forest, whose eastern reaches turn gradually to salty swampland. Populated by uninviting beasts and insects, they are only inhabited by the Yarulma, a Drûg-related folk of wild hunters and gatherers. Sometimes Ibaavi, Yilgaathi and Avari make expeditions in the forest to collect the various rare herbs and woods of the region.
Both an island and an archipelago, Waw lies off the southeastern coast of Lochas Drus, near the so-called Shelf-lands by the Mountains of the Wind. It was settled by the Wôlim during the second and third centuries of the Second Age, and was the centre of the Nazgûl Dwar's empire.
Wôl is southernmost of the Shelf-lands situated east of the Mountains of the Wind. Its original Wolîm inhabitants speak a Pukael-related tongue. Long an important administrative region, Wôl sent many colonists and immigrants to the island of Wâw. By the 15th-century TA, Wôl had become colonized in turn, as Wâw became a great power in its own right. Wôl and Wâw were almost synonymous in the chronicles of their rivals and foes in the post-Lochan period.
Womawas Drus encompasses all of the areas once ruled by the lords of Lochas proper. Administrative units were organized along cultural lines and basically correspond to traditional ethnic areas. After the division of the empire in T.A. 1794, various kingdoms and confederations arose in most of Lochas Drus' districts and often strived to eliminate any obvious vestiges of their elder subserviency; nonetheless, the names and borders of these smaller realms were generally the same as they had always been, regardless of who was master.
Located south and east of the Womaw Reach, the easternmost arm of the Orocarni (Q. "Red Mountains"), Wôm Shryac is the westernmost of the four "Core-lands" of Womawas Drus. It stretches from the Aceer Shryac in the west to the Sor Cuivan in the east. The Womaw Reach and tbe Aceer Gíak form its northern boundary, while the Romenëar defines its southern edges.
Y-Lústurangsur is a hilly karst-land lying along the eastern banks of the river Talathrant, about two hundred miles south of the Sea of the Illuin.
Mirëdor, the "Jewel-land," lies north of the Yellow Mountains and south of the Bay of Drel. Bounded by the river Celiant to the west, the Onpu Mispór to the north, and the Siresham to the east, it is an astoundingly flat coastal plateau occupied by Apysaic-speaking Aden and Drel tribes. (The urbane Adena comprise the majority.)
Zurghôr is a land of contrast, through both the influence of men and nature. The land can be divided into three major areas : the coastal lands (as the prolongation of Sakal an-Khâr), the dark jungle, heavily forested, the swamps. The rivers Alujedî and Dûrvidra forms its northern border, the frontier with the Lynerian League, while river Artarâ in the south constitutes the natural frontier with Sakal an-Khâr.
The coastal lands are a strip of land large of between 25 to 60 kilometers, populated mainly by farmers and fishers. Three important cities dominate the coasts, Aglarrâma ("the Castle of the Sea") to the north near river Alujedî's mouth, Lond Taurfalas ("Forest Coast City") and Zagar Baluk, the most important city of all the area,with a tremendous activity of sea captains and corsairs in the near islands. Last, the Sakal an-Khanîm, who have in control most of these lands, have deforested a little the jungle, and built there a line of seven fortresses, in case the barbarian tribes of Zurghôr would like to invade the civilized coastlands.
The jungle in itself is covered by dim rainforests and large clearings (the plains deforested long ago by the Zurghîr), which benefit of a large sunlight exposition. The climate is dry and humid, and the precipitations are rather important, around 100 inches a year. The Esmandûr river is the traditional boundary of the Zurghôr jungle, and it is there that starts Zekjâd, the Swamps of the Dead, as it was there than back before the First Age, it was supposed that some spirit folks followers of Morgoth establish there strongholds, with as many slaves that needed to serve them.
The Zurghîr as a whole are divided into several religious groups, or sects which take the same positions as tribes. The most important sites of note are the holy Mountain Rînaghnâti in the Rain Mountains in northeastern Zurghôr, and the fortress of Ventazvah ôran-tal, the stronghold of the ôran-tal sect.