HARP in the Forgotten Realms

Copyright Chris Adams © 2004

Edited by Nicholas HM Caldwell for The Guild Companion

Races & Cultures

HARP in the Forgotten Realms has sixteen races available for play: Humans, Gold Dwarves, Gray Dwarves (Duergar), Shield Dwarves, Drow (Dark Elves), Moon Elves, Sun Elves, Wild Elves, Wood Elves, Deep Gnomes, Rock Gnomes, Half-Elves, Half-Orcs, Ghostwise Halflings, Lighfoot Halflings, and Strongheart Halflings. Each race has a number of unique advantages and special abilities. Racial half-breeds are not handled as presented in the HARP Rulebook, but are listed as an individual character races.

Readers are referred to the Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting for details on the races in the Forgotten Realms - this article only presents the HARP conversions of their racial abilities and stat bonuses.

Humans

Special Abilities:

Professional Adaptability -- Being extremely adaptable, all Humans receive a 5 point discount on the number of Development Points necessary for a change of Profession, requiring only 15 points instead of the normal 20.

Bonus Skill Ranks -- Humans excel in learning skills at a young age. Their astute nature merits a one-time bonus of 5 ranks, which may be spent on skills found in any of the character's Favored Categories.

Skill Specialization -- With minds capable of unwavering focus, Humans may select one skill during character generation to receive a +10 bonus.

Dwarves

Gold Dwarves

Special Abilities:

Bane (Lesser) -- Gold Dwarves have an intense hatred of orcs and goblinoids, against which they gets a bonus of +10 when determining damage. This bonus is used only in determining damage (i.e. the critical) and does not apply to determining whether or not the character actually hits. The full bonus must always be used. This allows the attack to ignore damage caps.

Dark Vision (Special) -- Gold Dwarves have the ability to see up to 60' in total darkness. With at least some illumination, such as a candle, lantern, or torch, they are able to see up to twice as far as the light provides.

Dense Musculature -- With a sturdy bone structure and musculature, all Gold Dwarves receive a +5 bonus to both their OB and DB. The weight alteration brought about by this natural heftiness has already been calculated into the Dwarven Base Weight.

Improved Resistance (Poison) -- Gold Dwarves are extremely resistant to the effects of poison. They receive a special +50 bonus to Resistance Rolls versus poison attacks.

Limited Instinctive Defense -- Gold Dwarves have a familiarity with fighting giants and therefore receive an Instinctive Defense bonus whenever they encounter them. The character gains a special bonus of +20 to his DB for all attacks he is aware of. If he is unaware of an incoming attack, he still receives a special bonus of +10 to his DB.

Stone Sense -- With innate faculties for stone and stonework, Gold Dwarves may attempt a normal Perception Maneuver to notice unusual details, such as hidden doorways, traps within the stone itself, or flaws in stonework that could be potentially dangerous (such as those in floors or ceilings).

Gray Dwarves

Special Abilities:

Bane (Lesser) -- Gray Dwarves have an intense hatred of orcs and goblinoids, against which they gets a bonus of +10 when determining damage. This bonus is used only in determining damage (i.e. the critical) and does not apply to determining whether or not the character actually hits. The full bonus must always be used. This allows the attack to ignore damage caps.

Dark Vision (Special) -- Gray Dwarves have the ability to see up to 120' in total darkness. With at least some illumination, such as a candle, lantern, or torch, they are able to see up to twice as far as the light provides.

Dense Musculature -- With a sturdy bone structure and musculature, all Gray Dwarves receive a +5 bonus to both their OB and DB. The weight alteration brought about by this natural heftiness has already been calculated into the Dwarven Base Weight.

Improved Resistance (Poison) -- Gray Dwarves are extremely resistant to the effects of poison. They receive a special +50 bonus to Resistance Rolls versus poison attacks.

Stone Sense -- With innate faculties for stone and stonework, Gray Dwarves may attempt a normal Perception Maneuver to notice unusual details, such as hidden doorways, traps within the stone itself, or flaws in stonework that could be potentially dangerous (such as those in floors or ceilings).

Shield Dwarves

Special Abilities:

Bane (Lesser) -- Shield Dwarves have an intense hatred of orcs and goblinoids, against which he gets a bonus of +10 when determining damage. This bonus is used only in determining damage (i.e. the critical) and does not apply to determining whether or not the character actually hits. The full bonus must always be used. This allows the attack to ignore damage caps.

Dark Vision (Greater) -- Shield Dwarves have the ability to see up to 60' in total darkness. With at least some illumination, such as a candle, lantern, or torch, they are able to see up to twice as far as the light provides.

Dense Musculature -- With a sturdy bone structure and musculature, all Shield Dwarves receive a +5 bonus to both their OB and DB. The weight alteration brought about by this natural heftiness has already been calculated into the Dwarven Base Weight.

Improved Resistance (Poison) -- Shield Dwarves are extremely resistant to the effects of poison. They receive a special +50 bonus to Resistance Rolls versus poison attacks.

Limited Instinctive Defense -- Shield Dwarves have a familiarity with fighting giants and therefore receive an Instinctive Defense bonus whenever they encounter them. The character gains a special bonus of +20 to his DB for all attacks he is aware of. If he is unaware of an incoming attack, he still receives a special bonus of +10 to his DB.

Stone Sense -- With innate faculties for stone and stonework, Shield Dwarves may attempt a normal Perception Maneuver to notice unusual details, such as hidden doorways, traps within the stone itself, or flaws in stonework that could be potentially dangerous (such as those in floors or ceilings).

Elves

Drow

Special Abilities:

Dark Vision (Special) -- Drow have the ability to see up to 120' in total darkness. With at least some illumination, such as a candle, lantern, or torch, they are able to see up to twice as far as the light provides.

Skill Specialization (1-Handed Edged Weapons) -- Elves have a natural ability with 1-Handed Edged weapons (especially longswords). This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to a specific weapon in this category (i.e. if the player selects longsword for this ability, they do not receive the bonus for using a scimitar). This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Secret Doors) -- Elves have enhanced senses when it comes to finding secret doors and passageways. This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to a Perception rolls for locating or finding secret doors or passageways. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Immunity (Sleep Spells) -- Elves are immune to magical sleep spells. Poisons that make a character involuntarily fall asleep may still affect them.

Moon Elves

Special Abilities:

Dark Vision (Special) -- Moon Elves have the ability to see up to 60' in total darkness. With at least some illumination, such as a candle, lantern, or torch, they are able to see up to twice as far as the light provides.

Skill Specialization (1-Handed Edged Weapons) -- Elves have a natural ability with 1-Handed Edged weapons (especially longswords). This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to a specific weapon in this category (i.e. if the player selects longsword for this ability, they do not receive the bonus for using a scimitar). This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Bows) -- Elves have a natural ability with bows (not crossbows). This is reflected in him gaining a one time +10 bonus to a specific weapon in this category (i.e. if the player selects shortbow for this ability, they do not receive the bonus for using a longbow). This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Secret Doors) -- Elves have enhanced senses when it comes to finding secret doors and passageways. This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to a Perception rolls for locating or finding secret doors or passageways. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Immunity (Sleep Spells) -- Elves are immune to magical sleep spells. Poisons that make a character involuntarily fall asleep may still affect them.

Sun Elves

Special Abilities:

Dark Vision (Special) -- Sun Elves have the ability to see up to 60' in total darkness. With at least some illumination, such as a candle, lantern, or torch, they are able to see up to twice as far as the light provides.

Skill Specialization (1-Handed Edged Weapons) -- Elves have a natural ability with 1-Handed Edged weapons (especially longswords). This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to a specific weapon in this category (i.e. if the player selects longsword for this ability, they do not receive the bonus for using a scimitar). This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Bows) -- Elves have a natural ability with bows (not crossbows). This is reflected in him gaining a one time +10 bonus to a specific weapon in this category (i.e. if the player selects shortbow for this ability, they do not receive the bonus for using a longbow). This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Secret Doors) -- Elves have enhanced senses when it comes to finding secret doors and passageways. This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to a Perception rolls for locating or finding secret doors or passageways. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Immunity (Sleep Spells) -- Elves are immune to magical sleep spells. Poisons that make a character involuntarily fall asleep may still affect them.

Wild Elves

Special Abilities:

Dark Vision (Special) -- Wild Elves have the ability to see up to 60' in total darkness. With at least some illumination, such as a candle, lantern, or torch, they are able to see up to twice as far as the light provides.

Skill Specialization (1-Handed Edged Weapons) -- Elves have a natural ability with 1-Handed Edged weapons (especially longswords). This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to a specific weapon in this category (i.e. if the player selects longsword for this ability, they do not receive the bonus for using a scimitar). This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Bows) -- Elves have a natural ability with bows (not crossbows). This is reflected in him gaining a one time +10 bonus to a specific weapon in this category (i.e. if the player selects shortbow for this ability, they do not receive the bonus for using a longbow). This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Secret Doors) -- Elves have enhanced senses when it comes to finding secret doors and passageways. This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to a Perception rolls for locating or finding secret doors or passageways. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Immunity (Sleep Spells) -- Elves are immune to magical sleep spells. Poisons that make a character involuntarily fall asleep may still affect them.

Wood Elves

Special Abilities:

Dark Vision (Special) -- Wood Elves have the ability to see up to 60' in total darkness. With at least some illumination, such as a candle, lantern, or torch, they are able to see up to twice as far as the light provides.

Skill Specialization (1-Handed Edged Weapons) -- Elves have a natural ability with 1-Handed Edged weapons (especially longswords). This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to a specific weapon in this category (i.e. if the player selects longsword for this ability, they do not receive the bonus for using a scimitar). This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Bows) -- Elves have a natural ability with bows (not crossbows). This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to a specific weapon in this category (i.e. if the player selects shortbow for this ability, they do not receive the bonus for using a longbow). This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Secret Doors) -- Elves have enhanced senses when it comes to finding secret doors and passageways. This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to a Perception rolls for locating or finding secret doors or passageways. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Immunity (Sleep Spells) -- Elves are immune to magical sleep spells. Poisons that make a character involuntarily fall asleep may still affect them.

Gnomes

Deep Gnomes

Special Abilities:

Bane (Lesser) -- Deep Gnomes have an intense hatred of orcs and goblinoids, against which he gets a bonus of +10 when determining damage. This bonus is used only in determining damage (i.e. the critical) and does not apply to determining whether or not the character actually hits. The full bonus must always be used. This allows the attack to ignore damage caps.

Dark Vision (Special) -- Deep Gnomes have the ability to see up to 120' in total darkness. With at least some illumination, such as a candle, lantern, or torch, they are able to see up to twice as far as the light provides.

Instinctive Defense - The character gains a special bonus of +20 to his DB for all attacks he is aware of. If he is unaware of an incoming attack, he still receives a special bonus of +10 to his DB.

Skill Specialization (Perception) -- Gnomes have enhanced senses when it comes to noticing things. This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to all Perception rolls. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Rock Gnomes

Special Abilities:

Bane (Lesser) -- Rock Gnomes have an intense hatred of orcs and goblinoids, against which he gets a bonus of +10 when determining damage. This bonus is used only in determining damage (i.e. the critical) and does not apply to determining whether or not the character actually hits. The full bonus must always be used. This allows the attack to ignore damage caps.

Dark Vision (Special) -- Rock Gnomes have the ability to see up to 60' in total darkness. With at least some illumination, such as a candle, lantern, or torch, they are able to see up to twice as far as the light provides.

Improved Resistance (Illusions) -- Rock Gnomes are extremely resistant to the effects of illusions. They receive a special +10 bonus to Resistance Rolls versus disbelieving.

Instinctive Defense - The character gains a special bonus of +20 to his DB for all attacks he is aware of. If he is unaware of an incoming attack, he still receives a special bonus of +10 to his DB.

Limited Instinctive Defense -- Rock Gnomes have a familiarity with fighting giants and therefore receive an Instinctive Defense bonus whenever they encounter them. The character gains a special bonus of +20 to his DB for all attacks he is aware of. If he is unaware of an incoming attack, he still receives a special bonus of +10 to his DB.

Skill Specialization (Perception) -- Gnomes have enhanced senses when it comes to noticing things. This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to all Perception rolls. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Half-Elves

A half-elf's elven parentage gives them distinctive features. Drow half-elves tend to have dusky skin, silver or white hair, and human eye colors. (They have 60 ft. darkvision, but they do not gain any other Drow traits.) Moon half-elves tend toward pale skin with a tinge of blue around the ears and chin. Sea half-elves tend to blend the flesh tones of their human elven parents, but cannot breathe water. Sun half-elves have bronze skin. Wild half elves have medium brown skin. Wood half-elves have coppery skin tinged with green.

Regions: Most half-elves are loners because of their unique heritage. However, a few stable communities of half-elves are sprinkled around the landscape Faerûn.

Special Abilities:

Dark Vision (Special) -- Half-Elves have the ability to see up to 60' in total darkness. With at least some illumination, such as a candle, lantern, or torch, they are able to see up to twice as far as the light provides.

Skill Specialization (Secret Doors) -- Half-Elves have enhanced senses when it comes to finding secret doors and passageways. This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to a Perception rolls for locating or finding secret doors or passageways. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Immunity (Sleep Spells) -- Half-Elves are immune to magical sleep spells. Poisons that make a character involuntarily fall asleep may still affect them.

Half-Orcs

Special Abilities:

Dark Vision (Special) -- Half-Orcs have the ability to see up to 60' in total darkness. With at least some illumination, such as a candle, lantern, or torch, they are able to see up to twice as far as the light provides.

Halflings

Ghostwise Halflings

Special Abilities:

Improved Resistance (Fear) -- Ghostwise Halflings are extremely resistant to the effects of fear. They receive a special +10 bonus to Resistance Rolls versus fear.

Skill Specialization (Climbing) -- Ghostwise Halflings receive a one-time +10 bonus to all Climbing rolls. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Perception) -- Ghostwise Halflings receive a one-time +10 bonus to all Perception rolls. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Stalk & Hide) -- Ghostwise Halflings receive a one-time +10 bonus to all Stalking & Hiding rolls. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Missile/Thrown Weapons) -- Halflings have a natural ability with Missile (Slings)/Thrown Weapons. This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to a specific thrown weapon or sling (i.e. if the player selects a sling for this ability, they do not receive the bonus for using a dart). This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Lightfoot Halflings

Special Abilities:

Improved Resistance (Fear) -- Lightfoot Halflings are extremely resistant to the effects of fear. They receive a special +10 bonus to Resistance Rolls versus fear.

Skill Specialization (Climbing) -- Lightfoot Halflings receive a one-time +10 bonus to all Climbing rolls. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Perception) -- Lightfoot Halflings receive a one-time +10 bonus to all Perception rolls. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Stalk & Hide) -- Lightfoot Halflings receive a one-time +10 bonus to all Stalking & Hiding rolls. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Missile/Thrown Weapons) -- Halflings have a natural ability with Missile (Slings)/Thrown Weapons. This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to a specific thrown weapon or sling (i.e. if the player selects a sling for this ability, they do not receive the bonus for using a dart). This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Strongheart Halflings.

Special Abilities:

Improved Resistance (Fear) -- Strongheart Halflings are extremely resistant to the effects of fear. They receive a special +10 bonus to Resistance Rolls versus fear.

Skill Specialization (Climbing) -- Strongheart Halflings receive a one-time +10 bonus to all Climbing rolls. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Perception) -- Strongheart Halflings receive a one-time +10 bonus to all Perception rolls. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Stalk & Hide) -- Strongheart Halflings receive a one-time +10 bonus to all Stalking & Hiding rolls. This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Skill Specialization (Missile/Thrown Weapons) -- Halflings have a natural ability with Missile (Slings)/Thrown Weapons. This is reflected in him gaining a one-time +10 bonus to a specific thrown weapon or sling (i.e. if the player selects a sling for this ability, they do not receive the bonus for using a dart). This ability does not count towards the limit for Skill Specializations.

Race St Co Ag Qu SD Re In Pr Endurance Power Points Stamina Will Magic
Human +* +* +* +* +* +* +* +* +30 +30 +10 +10 +10
Gold Dwarf +2 +5 +0 +0 +4 +0 +0 +0 +50 +10 +15 +10 +5
Gray Dwarf +2 +5 +0 +0 +4 +0 +0 +0 +50 +10 +20 +10 +0
Shield Dwarf +2 +5 +0 +0 +4 +0 +0 +0 +50 +10 +15 +10 +5
Drow Elf +0 +0 +2 +3 +0 +1 +1 +4 +25 +35 +5 +5 +20
Moon Elf +0 +0 +2 +3 +0 +1 +1 +4 +20 +40 +5 +5 +20
Sun Elf +0 +0 +2 +2 +0 +1 +1 +5 +20 +40 +0 +5 +25
Wild Elf +0 +1 +2 +2 +0 +1 +1 +4 +30 +30 +5 +5 +20
Wood Elf +0 +0 +2 +3 +0 +1 +1 +4 +20 +40 +5 +5 +20
Deep Gnome +0 +2 +2 +2 +0 +2 +1 +2 +25 +35 +10 +5 +15
Rock Gnome +0 +1 +2 +2 +0 +2 +2 +2 +25 +35 +10 +5 +15
Half-Elf +1 +1 +1 +2 +1 +1 +1 +3 +25 +35 +10 +10 +10
Half-Orc +3 +5 +1 +0 +2 +0 +0 +0 +55 +5 +20 +10 +0
Ghostwise Halfling -2 +3 +4 +4 +0 +0 +0 +0 +25 +35 +15 +15 +0
Lightfoot Halfling -2 +3 +4 +4 +0 +0 +0 +0 +25 +35 +15 +15 +0
Strongheart Halfling -2 +3 +4 +4 +0 +0 +0 +0 +25 +35 +15 +15 +0

* - Humans do not have fixed racial bonuses. Players of a human character have 8 points to divide anyway they like between the 8 racial stat bonuses. No stat may have a bonus greater than +3.

Professions

Author's Note: Unless presented here, the professions from the core HARP Rulebook may be used and are equivalent in name and ability to the classes in the Forgotten Realms with four exceptions. The Bard replaces the Harper and the Warrior Mage and Rogue professions are omitted. If a character wishes to become a Fighter/Mage or Fighter/Thief they must acquire a second profession to do so. The HARP Cleric does not do "double-duty" as a Paladin in the Forgotten Realms. The HARP Fighter is used for both the Forgotten Realms Fighter and Barbarian classes. Also, two new professions are presented, the Paladin and the Druid.

Cleric

The Cleric is a priest and sage who has mastered the use of divine magic. Clerics generally pay homage to one deity, but some worship entire pantheons. A Cleric's spells reflect the nature of his god. While many remain cloistered and tucked away in monasteries, a number have become adventurers, wandering from place to place, preaching the words of their deity to the faithless.

FAVORED CATEGORIES:

General: 3

Mystical Arts: 8

Physical: 3

Select two categories: 3 each

Key Stats: Insight, Reasoning

PROFESSIONAL ABILITIES: A Cleric may select any 20 spells to form his base list, but at least half of those spells must come from the Cleric sphere. Any base list spell selected by the Cleric must be affiliated with his deity's interests. The Cleric may also select two categories as Favored Categories, subject to GM approval, based upon the deity's interests.

Note: Players should check with their Gamemaster to determine if any noteworthy variations have already been implemented for the setting. The GM is the final arbitrator in determining which spells may or may not be appropriate.

Druid

The Druid is a priest who has mastered the use of divine magic through their understanding of nature. Druids generally pay homage to one deity, but some worship nature itself. A Druid's spells reflect the outdoors and live in general.

FAVORED CATEGORIES:

General: 3

Mystical Arts: 8

Physical: 3

Select two categories: 3 each

Key Stats: Insight, Reasoning

PROFESSIONAL ABILITIES: A Druid may select any 20 spells to form his base list, but at least half of those spells must come from the Cleric or Ranger sphere. Any base list spell selected by the Druid must be affiliated with his deity's interests. The Druid may also select two categories as Favored Categories, subject to GM approval, based upon the deity's interests.

Note: Players should check with their Gamemaster to determine if any noteworthy variations have already been implemented for the setting. The GM is the final arbitrator in determining which spells may or may not be appropriate.

Bard

As learned in lore as they are in the telling of wild tales, the Bard works a special kind of magic to help support his performances. Since many Bards are also quintessential wanderers, never tarrying in one area for too long, they subsist solely on the graciousness of their audiences. Bards are drawn to adventure like moths to a flame, for each experience, each new step along the way is another marvelous story to record.

FAVORED CATEGORIES:

Artistic: 4

General: 3

Combat: 3

Physical: 3

Influence: 4

Mystical Arts: 3

KEY STATS: Reasoning, Insight, & Presence.

PROFESSIONAL ABILITIES: Bards may learn any spell found in the Bard sphere. All Bards also have the Enhanced Senses and Scholar Talents.

Author's Note: The Bard in the Forgotten Realms is equivalent to the Harper presented in the HARP Rulebook.

Paladin

The Paladin strides boldly between two worlds, equal parts Fighter and Cleric. He specializes in magic that aids and enhances his natural martial abilities as well as healing. A Paladin also maintains a repertoire of spells that give him the necessary edge over his foe's, especially the undead.

FAVORED CATEGORIES:

Combat: 6

General: 3

Mystical Arts: 6

Physical: 5

KEY STATS: Insight, Strength, & Agility

PROFESSIONAL ABILITIES: Paladins may learn spells from the Paladin sphere. Beginning at first level, and then every seventh level thereafter (7th, 14th, etc) Paladins gain a +10 bonus to the weapon skill of their choice. No weapon skill may have more than a +30 bonus from this ability.

Thief

A Thief is a master of subterfuge and deception. Skilled in the arts of larceny, the Thief makes relieving a nobleman of his purse a simple task. Found in every corner of the world, Thieves are drawn to areas of commerce, but are quick to join in an adventure as they find it difficult to resist the lure of gold or treasure.

FAVORED CATEGORIES:

Athletic: 3

Influence: 2

Combat: 3

General: 3

Subterfuge: 6

Physical: 3

KEY STATS: Insight, Strength, & Agility

PROFESSIONAL ABILITIES: Beginning at first level, and then every fifth level (5th, 10th, etc), Thieves gain a +10 to any one Subterfuge skill of their choice. No skill may have greater than a +30 bonus from this ability. Thieves also gain the talent, Subtle.

Author's Note: The Rogue in the Forgotten Realms is equivalent to the Thief presented in the HARP Rulebook

Editor's Note: The Forgotten Realms, the Forgotten Realms Campaign Setting, and all races therein are copyright and trademark properties of Wizards of the Coast. No challenge to those properties is intended by this article.